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Development Pathways And Land Management In Uganda: Causes And Implications

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  • Pender, John L.
  • Jagger, Pamela
  • Nkonya, Ephraim M.
  • Sserunkuuma, Dick

Abstract

This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of change in livelihood strategies ("development pathways”"), land management practices, resource and human welfare conditions in Uganda since 1990, based upon a community-level survey conducted in 107 villages. The pattern of agricultural development since 1990 involved increasing specialization and commercialization of economic activities, consistent with local comparative advantages and market liberalization. Six dominant development pathways emerged, all but one of which involved increasing specialization in already dominant activities: expansion of cereal production, expansion of banana and coffee production, non-farm development, expansion of horticultural production, expansion of cotton, and stable coffee production. Of these, expansion of banana and coffee production was most strongly associated with adoption of resource-conserving practices and improvements in resource conditions and welfare. Other strategies are needed for areas not suited for this pathway. Other factors also influenced land management and resource and welfare outcomes. Road development was associated with improvements in many welfare and some natural resource conditions, except forest and wetland availability. Irrigation was found to reduce pressure to expand cultivated area at the expense of forest and wetlands, and is associated with improvement in some welfare and resource indicators. Government and non-governmental organization programs were found to contribute to improvements in several resource and welfare indicators, though there were some mixed results. Such programs may cause declines in one area by focusing on improvements in another area. Thus, trade-offs appear to be inherent in many efforts to improve agriculture or protect resources. Population growth had an insignificant impact on most indicators of change, though there is some evidence of population-induced agricultural intensification. The findings support neither the pessimism of some neo-Malthusian observers or the optimism of some neo-Boserupian observers regarding the impacts of population growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in its series 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA with number 19814.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea02:19814

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Keywords: International Development; Land Economics/Use;

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References

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  1. Pender, John L. & Place, Frank & Ehui, Simeon K., 1999. "Strategies for sustainable agricultural development in the East African highlands:," EPTD discussion papers 41, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Knox, Anna & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela & Hazell, P. B. R., 1998. "Property rights, collective action and technologies for natural resource management: a conceptual framework," CAPRi working papers 1, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Swallow, Brent M. & Johnson, Nancy & Knox, Anna & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela, 2004. "Property rights and collective action in watersheds," 2020 vision briefs 11 No. 12, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Pender, John L. & Kerr, John M., 1996. "Determinants of farmers' indigenous soil and water conservation investments in India's semi-arid tropics:," EPTD discussion papers 17, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Pender, John L., 1999. "Rural population growth, agricultural change and natural resource management in developing countries: a review of hypotheses and some evidence from Honduras," EPTD discussion papers 48, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Pender, John L. & Scherr, Sara J., 1999. "Organizational development and natural resource management: evidence from central Honduras," EPTD discussion papers 49, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Angelsen, Arild, 1999. "Agricultural expansion and deforestation: modelling the impact of population, market forces and property rights," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 185-218, February.
  8. Jeffrey T. LaFrance, 1992. "Do Increased Commodity Prices Lead To More Or Less Soil Degradation?," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 36(1), pages 57-82, 04.
  9. Scherr, Sara J. & Hazell, P. B. R., 1994. "Sustainable agricultural development strategies in fragile lands:," EPTD discussion papers 1, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  10. John Pender & Berhanu Gebremedhin & Saumuel Benin & Simeon Ehui, 2001. "Strategies for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Ethiopian Highlands," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1231-1240.
  11. Pender, John L., 1996. "Discount rates and credit markets: Theory and evidence from rural india," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 257-296, August.
  12. Pender, John L., 1998. "Population growth, agricultural intensification, induced innovation and natural resource sustainability: An application of neoclassical growth theory," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 99-112, September.
  13. Pender, John L. & Jagger, Pamela & Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Sserunkuuma, Dick, 2002. "Development Pathways And Land Management In Uganda: Causes And Implications," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19814, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  14. Wood, Stanley & Sebastian, Kate & Nachtergaele, Freddy & Nielsen, Daniel & Dai, Aiguo, 1999. "Spatial aspects of the design and targeting of agricultural development strategies:," EPTD discussion papers 44, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  15. Stefano Pagiola, 1996. "Price policy and returns to soil conservation in semi-arid Kenya," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 8(3), pages 225-271, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Chamberlin, Jordan & Pender, John & Yu, Bingxin, 2006. "Development domains for Ethiopia: capturing the geographical context of smallholder development options," EPTD discussion papers 159, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Pender, John & Kato, Edward & Mugarura, Samuel & Muwonge, James, 2005. "Who knows, who cares?: determinants of enactment, awareness and compliance with community natural resource management," CAPRi working papers 41, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Muller, Daniel & Zeller, Manfred, 2002. "Land use dynamics in the central highlands of Vietnam: a spatial model combining village survey data with satellite imagery interpretation," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 333-354, November.
  4. Diao, Xinshen & Hazell, Peter & Resnick, Danielle & Thurlow, James, 2006. "The role of agriculture in development: implications for Sub-Saharan Africa," DSGD discussion papers 29, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Place, Frank & Kariuki, Gatarwa & Wangila, Justine & Kristjanson, Patti & Makauki, Adolf & Ndubi, Jessica, 2002. "Assessing the factors underlying differences in group performance: methodological issues and empirical findings from the highlands of Central Kenya," CAPRi working papers 25, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Pender, John & Nkonya, Ephraim & Jagger, Pamela & Sserunkuuma, Dick & Ssali, Henry, 2004. "Strategies to increase agricultural productivity and reduce land degradation: evidence from Uganda," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 181-195, December.
  7. World Bank, 2005. "Uganda : Policy Options for Increasing Crop Productivity and Reducing Soil Nutrient Depletion and Poverty," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8647, The World Bank.
  8. Omamo, Steven Were, 2003. "Fertilizer trade and pricing in Uganda," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 42(4), December.
  9. Mugonola, Basil & Vranken, Liesbet & Maertens, Miet & Deckers, Jozef & Taylor, Daniel B & Bonabana-Wabbi, Jackline & Mathijs, Erik, 2013. "Soil and water conservation technologies and technical efficiency in banana production in upper Rwizi micro-catchment, Uganda," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 8(1), July.
  10. World Bank, 2007. "Uganda - Moving Beyond Recovery, Investment and Behavior Change, For Growth, Volume 2, Overview," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7574, The World Bank.
  11. Pender, John & Jagger, Pamela & Nkonya, Ephraim & Sserunkuuma, Dick, 2004. "Development Pathways and Land Management in Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 767-792, May.
  12. Dorosh, Paul A. & El-Said, Moataz & Lofgren, Hans, 2003. "Technical Change, Market Incentives And Rural Incomes: A Cge Analysis Of Uganda'S Agriculture," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25846, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  13. Nkonya, Ephraim & Kaizzi, Crammer & Pender, John, 2005. "Determinants of nutrient balances in a maize farming system in eastern Uganda," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 155-182, August.
  14. Jagger, Pamela & Pender, John L., 2003. "Impacts of programs and organizations on the adoption of sustainable land management technologies in Uganda:," EPTD discussion papers 101, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  15. Pender, John L. & Jagger, Pamela & Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Sserunkuuma, Dick, 2002. "Development Pathways And Land Management In Uganda: Causes And Implications," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19814, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  16. Pender, John & Ssewanyana, Sarah & Edward, Kato & Nkonya, Ephraim M., 2004. "Linkages between poverty and land management in rural Uganda: evidence from the Uganda National Household Survey, 1999/00," EPTD discussion papers 122, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  17. Pender, John, 2004. "Development pathways for hillsides and highlands: some lessons from Central America and East Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 339-367, August.
  18. Yamano, Takashi & Kijima, Yoko, 2010. "The associations of soil fertility and market access with household income: Evidence from rural Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 51-59, February.
  19. World Bank, 2007. "Uganda - Moving Beyond Recovery : Investment and Behavior Change, For Growth, Volume 1. Summary and Recommendations," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7576, The World Bank.

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