Barriers For Development In Zambian Small- And Medium-Size Farms: Evidence From Micro-Data
AbstractThe objective of this paper is to identify factors which limit the ability of Zambian farmers to increase Maize productivity and/or diversify their crop mix. Both may enable wealth accumulation, investments, and further expansion. Specifically, we link variations in agricultural decisions, practices, and outcomes, to variations in the tightness of the different constraints. We model crop production decisions as having recursive structure. Initially, farmers decide on land allocation among the different crops, based on their information set at planting time. Then, as new information (weather, market conditions) is revealed, farmers can change output by influencing the yield. This recursive structure enables to separate the effects of the constraints on the different stages of production. We therefore conduct estimation in two stages: we first estimate the fraction of land allocated to Maize as a dependent variable that is censored from below and from above, so that its predicted value is necessarily between zero and one. The yield of Maize is estimated in the second stage as a linear function of calculated land allotment (to avoid simultaneity bias) and the other state variables. Environmental and demographic variables also serve as explanatory variables in each stage. The first-stage results indicate that crop diversification can be promoted by rural road construction, developing markets for agricultural products, increasing the availability of seeds, draught animals, and farm machines, increasing women's farm work participation, and increasing the size of landholdings. Specialization in Maize can be promoted by increasing the availability of credit, fertilizers, hired permanent workers, and irrigation knowledge, and improving the timeliness of input delivery. The second-stage results show that the yield of Maize is inversely related to the area of Maize cultivated and to the operator's age, and is lower in female-headed farm households. Maize productivity can be improved by increasing the availability of seeds, fertilizers, labor, draught animals, machines, and credit.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in its series 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL with number 21877.
Date of creation: 2000
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.org
More information through EDIRC
Crop Diversification; Maize Productivity; Recursive Decisions; Two-stage Estimation; Censored Dependent Variables; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O1; Q1;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- O1 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
- Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Foster, Kenneth A. & Mwanaumo, Anthony, 1995.
"Estimation of dynamic maize supply response in Zambia,"
Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists,
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 12(1), April.
- Foster, Kenneth A. & Mwanaumo, Anthony, 1995. "Estimation of dynamic maize supply response in Zambia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 12(1), pages 99-107, April.
- Borjas, George J. & Sueyoshi, Glenn T., 1994.
"A two-stage estimator for probit models with structural group effects,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 165-182.
- George J. Borjas & Glenn T. Sueyoshi, 1993. "A Two-Stage Estimator for Probit Models with Structural Group Effects," NBER Technical Working Papers 0146, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Holden, Stein T., 1993. "Peasant household modelling: Farming systems evolution and sustainability in northern Zambia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 241-267, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.