Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits
In: Measuring and Managing Federal Financial Risk
AbstractOne measure of the health of the Social Security system is the difference between the market value of the trust fund and the present value of benefits accrued to date. How should present values be computed for this calculation in light of future uncertainties? We think it is important to use market value. Since claims on accrued benefits are not currently traded in financial markets, we cannot directly observe a market value. In this paper, we use a model to estimate what the market price for these claims would be if they were traded. In valuing such claims, the key issue is properly adjusting for risk. The traditional actuarial approach â the approach currently used by the Social Security Administration in generating its most widely cited numbers - ignores risk and instead simply discounts âexpectedâ future flows back to the present using a risk-free rate. If benefits are risky and this risk is priced by the market, then actuarial estimates will differ from market value. Effectively, market valuation uses a discount rate that incorporates a risk premium. Developing the proper adjustment for risk requires a careful examination of the stream of future benefits. The U.S. Social Security system is âwage-indexedâ: future benefits depend directly on future realizations of the economy-wide average wage index. We assume that there is a positive long-run correlation between average labor earnings and the stock market. We then use derivative pricing methods standard in the finance literature to compute the market price of individual claims on future benefits, which depend on age and macro state variables. Finally, we aggregate the market value of benefits across all cohorts to arrive at an overall value of accrued benefits. We find that the difference between market valuation and âactuarialâ valuation is large, especially when valuing the benefits of younger cohorts. Overall, the market value of accrued benefits is only 4/5 of that implied by the actuarial ap
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Other versions of this item:
- John Geanakoplos & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2009. "Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits," NBER Working Papers 15170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Geanakoplos & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2009. "Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1711, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- D91 - Microeconomics - - Intertemporal Choice - - - Intertemporal Household Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
- E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
- G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
- G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
- H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
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- John Geanakoplos & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2009.
"Reforming Social Security with Progressive Personal Accounts,"
in: Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment, pages 73-121
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Geanakoplos & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2008. "Reforming Social Security with Progressive Personal Accounts," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1664, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- John Geanakoplos & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2008. "Reforming Social Security with Progressive Personal Accounts," NBER Working Papers 13979, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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- Alexander W. Blocker & Laurence J. Kotlikoff & Stephen A. Ross, 2008. "The True Cost of Social Security," NBER Working Papers 14427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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