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Buy Local? The Geography of Venture Capital

In: Cities and Entrepreneurship

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Author Info

  • Henry Chen
  • Paul Gompers
  • Anna Kovner
  • Josh Lerner

Abstract

We document geographic concentration by both venture capital firms and venture capital-financed companies in three metropolitan areas: San Francisco, Boston, and New York. We find that venture capital firms locate in regions with high success rates of venture capital-backed investments. Geography is also significantly related to outcomes. Venture capital firms based in locales that are venture capital centers outperform, regardless of the stage of the investment. This outperformance arises from outsized performance outside of the venture capital firms' office locations, including in peripheral locations. If the goal of state and local policy makers is to encourage venture capital investment, outperformance of non-local investments suggests that policy makers might want to mitigate costs associated with established venture capitalists investing in their geographies rather than encouraging the establishment of new venture capital firms.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Edward L. Glaeser & Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2010. "Cities and Entrepreneurship," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number glae09-1, May.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 11892.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:11892

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    References

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    1. S. Klepper & S. Sleeper, 2002. "Entry by Spinoffs," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2002-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group.
    2. Bruce Fallick & Charles A. Fleischmann & James B. Rebitzer, 2005. "Job Hopping in Silicon Valley: Some Evidence Concerning the Micro-Foundations of a High Technology Cluster," NBER Working Papers 11710, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Ellison, G. & Glaeser, E.L., 1994. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Working papers 94-27, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    4. Christoffersen, Susan E.K. & Sarkissian, Sergei, 2009. "City size and fund performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 252-275, May.
    5. Freedman, Matthew L., 2008. "Job hopping, earnings dynamics, and industrial agglomeration in the software publishing industry," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 590-600, November.
    6. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
    7. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
    8. Gilles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2001. "Nursery Cities: Urban Diversity, Process Innovation, and the Life Cycle of Products," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1454-1477, December.
    9. Edward L. Glaeser, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the City," NBER Working Papers 13551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Claudio Michelacci & Olmo Silva, 2007. "Why So Many Local Entrepreneurs?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(4), pages 615-633, November.
    11. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. " Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-89, December.
    12. Agrawal, Ajay & Kapur, Devesh & McHale, John, 2008. "How do spatial and social proximity influence knowledge flows? Evidence from patent data," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 258-269, September.
    13. Mariassunta Giannetti & Andrei Simonov, 2009. "Social Interactions and Entrepreneurial Activity," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 665-709, 09.
    14. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
    15. Barry, Christopher B. & Muscarella, Chris J. & Peavy, John III & Vetsuypens, Michael R., 1990. "The role of venture capital in the creation of public companies*1: Evidence from the going-public process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 447-471, October.
    16. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner & David Scharfstein, 2005. "Entrepreneurial Spawning: Public Corporations and the Genesis of New Ventures, 1986 to 1999," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 577-614, 04.
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    Cited by:
    1. Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Parker, Simon, 2010. "Josh Lerner: Recipient of the 2010 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 233, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    2. Breinlich, Holger & Ottaviano, Gianmarco & Temple, Jonathan, 2013. "Regional Growth and Regional Decline," CEPR Discussion Papers 9568, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Field, Laura & Lowry, Michelle & Mkrtchyan, Anahit, 2013. "Are busy boards detrimental?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 63-82.
    4. Tian, Xuan, 2011. "The causes and consequences of venture capital stage financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 132-159, July.
    5. Schertler, Andrea & Tykvová, Tereza, 2012. "What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1777-1799.
    6. Howard Bodenhorn & David Cuberes, 2010. "Financial development and city growth: Evidence from Northeastern American cities, 1790-1870," Working Papers 2010/35, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    7. Bengtsson, Ola & Hsu, David H., 2013. "Ethnic Matching in the U.S. Venture Capital Market," Knut Wicksell Working Paper Series 2013/8, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies, Lund University.
    8. Elena Nikolova & Frantisek Ricka & Dora Simroth, 2012. "Entrepreneurship in the transition region: an analysis based on the Life in Transition Survey," Working Papers 141, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Office of the Chief Economist.
    9. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    10. Paul Gompers & Vladimir Mukharlyamov & Yuhai Xuan, 2012. "The Cost of Friendship," NBER Working Papers 18141, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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