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Marriage, Motherhood, and Wages

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  • Sanders Korenman
  • David Neumark

Abstract

We explore several problems in drawing causal inferences from cross-sectional relationships between marriage, motherhood, and wages. We find that heterogeneity leads to biased estimates of the "direct" effects of marriage and motherhood on wages (i.e., effects net of experience and tenure); first-difference estimates reveal no direct effect of marriage or motherhood on women's wages. We also find statistical evidence that experience and tenure may be endogenous variables in wage equations; instrumental variables estimates suggest that both ordinary least squares cross-sectional and first-difference estimates understate the direct (negative) effect of children on wages.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Wisconsin Press in its journal Journal of Human Resources.

Volume (Year): 27 (1992)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 233-255

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Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:27:y:1992:i:2:p:233-255

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Web page: http://jhr.uwpress.org/

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  1. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  2. Olsen, Randall J, 1980. "A Least Squares Correction for Selectivity Bias," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(7), pages 1815-20, November.
  3. Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1987. "Marital Status, Child Rearing and Earnings Differentials in the Graduate Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 897-922, December.
  4. Polachek, Solomon William, 1975. "Differences in Expected Post-school Investments as a Determinant of Market Wage Differentials," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 16(2), pages 451-70, June.
  5. Siebert, W S & Sloane, P J, 1981. "The Measurement of Sex and Marital Status Discrimination at the Workplace," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 48(190), pages 125-41, May.
  6. Fuchs, Victor R, 1989. "Women's Quest for Economic Equality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 25-41, Winter.
  7. J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  8. William Moore & R. Mark Wilson, 1982. "The Influence of Children on the Wage Rates of Married Women," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 197-210, Jul-Sep.
  9. Solon, Gary, 1988. "Self-selection bias in longitudinal estimation of wage gaps," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 285-290.
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