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Firm Value and Managerial Incentives: A Stochastic Frontier Approach

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  • Michel A. Habib

    (Swiss Banking Institute, University of Zurich)

  • Alexander Ljungqvist

    (Salomon Center, Stern School of Business, New York University)

Abstract

We provide a direct estimate of the magnitude of agency costs in publicly held corporations. We compute an explicit performance benchmark that compares a firm's actual Tobin's Q to the Q* of a hypothetical value-maximizing firm having the same inputs and characteristics as the original firm. The Q of the average sample firm is around 16% below its Q*, equivalent to a $1,432 million reduction in its potential market value. We relate the shortfall to the incentives provided CEOs. Boards appear to grant CEOs too few shares and too many options that are insufficiently sensitive to firm risk.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Journal of Business.

Volume (Year): 78 (2005)
Issue (Month): 6 (November)
Pages: 2053-2094

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Handle: RePEc:ucp:jnlbus:v:78:y:2005:i:6:p:2053-2094

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Cited by:
  1. Lucian Arye Bebchuk & Jesse M. Fried, 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," NBER Working Papers 9813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. O'Connor, Matthew L. & Rafferty, Matthew, 2010. "Incentive effects of executive compensation and the valuation of firm assets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 431-442, September.
  3. Gormley, Todd A. & Matsa, David A. & Milbourn, Todd, 2013. "CEO compensation and corporate risk: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 79-101.
  4. Kim, Jeong-Bon & Li, Yinghua & Zhang, Liandong, 2011. "CFOs versus CEOs: Equity incentives and crashes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 713-730, September.
  5. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Who said large banks don’t experience scale economies? Evidence from a risk-return-driven cost function," Working Papers 13-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, revised 04 Feb 2014.
  6. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Measuring the Performance of Banks: Theory, Practice, Evidence, and Some Policy Implications," Departmental Working Papers 201322, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  7. Ingolf Dittmann & Ko-Chia Yu, 2009. "How Important Are Risk-Taking Incentives in Executive Compensation?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-076/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Jayesh Kumar, 2004. "Share holding Pattern and Firm Performance," Finance 0409008, EconWPA.
  9. Richard Chung & Scott Fung & Szu-Yin Hung, 2012. "Institutional Investors and Firm Efficiency of Real Estate Investment Trusts," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 171-211, June.
  10. Bulan, Laarni & Sanyal, Paroma & Yan, Zhipeng, 2010. "A few bad apples: An analysis of CEO performance pay and firm productivity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 273-306, July.
  11. Beladi, Hamid & Quijano, Margot, 2013. "CEO incentives for risk shifting and its effect on corporate bank loan cost," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 182-188.
  12. O’Connor, Matthew & Rafferty, Matthew & Sheikh, Aamer, 2013. "Equity compensation and the sensitivity of research and development to financial market frictions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2510-2519.
  13. Quader, Manzur & Taylor, Karl, 2014. "Corporate Efficiency, Credit Status and Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 8285, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Ezzeddine Ben Mohamed & Baccar Ame & Abdelfatteh Bouri, 2013. "Investment Cash Flow Sensitivity and Managerial Optimism: A Literature Review via the Classification Scheme Technique," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 5(1), pages 007-026, June.

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