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The Impact of Income Taxation on the Labor Supply of Part-time and Full-time Workers

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  • John Baffoe-Bonnie

Abstract

This paper estimates the effect of income taxation on the labor supply of part-time and full-time workers in the United States. Using a model that incorporates the endogeneity of the net wage rate and the virtual income, and correcting for self-selection into part-time and full-time jobs, the results indicate that part-time workers are relatively more responsive to changes in income tax than full-time workers. Estimated wage elasticities are relatively larger for part-time than for full-time workers.The simulation results indicate that income tax has a disincentive effect on both part-time and full-time workers, with part-time and full-time workers reducing their labor supply by 0.87 and 0.58 hours, respectively, if a 5% tax is imposed. However, the percentage reduction in hours of work is very small, and a tax policy may have little effect on the labor supply of workers.The results seem to suggest that female and black part-time workers are more likely to drop out of the labor force at higher levels of income tax. It also tests the hypothesis that the labor supply behavior of parttime and full-time workers differs.The test results indicate that the determinants of the labor supply of part-time workers are different from those of full-time workers. It is noted that there is a significant difference between the labor supply of male part-time and female parttime workers, as well as between the black part-time and white part-time workers. In order to reduce voluntary unemployment in market activities among married females and blacks, the government can encourage part-time work by sponsoring legislation or instituting a scheme that will allow part-time workers to pay relatively less in payroll taxes.

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File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02692170120013376
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal International Review of Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 15 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 107-128

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Handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:15:y:2001:i:1:p:107-128

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  1. Susan L. Averett & Julie L. Hotchkiss, 2000. "Female Labor Supply With A Discontinuous, Nonconvex Budget Constraint: Incorporation Of A Part-Time/Full-Time Wage Differential," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(3), pages 461-470, August.
  2. repec:fth:stanho:e-90-11 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. John F. Ermisch & Robert E. Wright, 1993. "Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 111-133.
  4. Rebecca Blank & Craig Riddell, 1985. "Simultaneously Modelling the Supply of Weeks and Hours of Work Among Female Household Heads," Working Papers 577, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  5. Wayne Simpson, 1986. "Analysis of Part-Time Pay in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 19(4), pages 798-807, November.
  6. Robert K. Triest, 1990. "The Effect of Income Taxation on Labor Supply in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 491-516.
  7. G. Burtless & J. A. Hausman, 1977. "The Effect of Taxation on Labor Supply: Evaluating the Gary Negative Income Tax Experiment," Working papers 211, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  8. Pesaran, M H & Smith, R P & Yeo, J S, 1985. "Testing for Structural Stability and Predictive Failure: A Review," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 53(3), pages 280-95, September.
  9. Thomas MaCurdy & David Green & Harry Paarsch, 1990. "Assessing Empirical Approaches for Analyzing Taxes and Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 415-490.
  10. Pencavel, John, 1987. "Labor supply of men: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-102 Elsevier.
  11. Alice Nakamura & Masao Nakamura, 1983. "Part-Time and Full-Time Work Behaviour of Married Women: A Model with a Doubly Truncated Dependent Variable," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 16(2), pages 229-57, May.
  12. Fran├žois Bourguignon & Thierry Magnac, 1990. "Labor Supply and Taxation in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 358-389.
  13. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  14. James J. Heckman & Thomas E. MaCurdy, 1982. "New Methods for Estimating Labor Supply Functions: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 0858, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Johnson, Terry R & Pencavel, John H, 1984. "Dynamic Hours of Work Functions for Husbands, Wives, and Single Females," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 363-89, March.
  16. Hausmann, J. A. & Kinnucan, M. & McFaddden, D., 1979. "A two-level electricity demand model : Evaluation of the connecticut time-of-day pricing test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 263-289, August.
  17. Moffitt, Robert, 1990. "The Econometrics of Kinked Budget Constraints," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 119-39, Spring.
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