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Domestic political and external security determinants of the demand for greek military expenditure

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  • Christos Kollias
  • Suzanna-Maria Paleologou

Abstract

By European Union and NATO standards, Greece consistently allocates substantial human and material resources to defence. The Greek defence burden (i.e. military expenditure as a share of GDP) has invariably been appreciably higher than the EU and NATO averages. The paper applies an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) to present cointegrated estimates of the demand function for Greek military expenditure, in which domestic political factors and external security determinants are incorporated. Our empirical findings suggest that Greek defence spending over the period 1960-1998 has been influenced by both external security concerns, namely Turkey, as well as changes in the domestic political scene.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Defence and Peace Economics.

Volume (Year): 14 (2003)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 437-445

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Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:14:y:2003:i:6:p:437-445

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Related research

Keywords: Greece; Turkey; Demand For Military Expenditure; Political Determinants; External Security; Cointegration; Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model;

References

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  1. Smith, R P, 1980. "The Demand for Military Expenditure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(363), pages 811-20, December.
  2. Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler, 2001. "Economics of Alliances: The Lessons for Collective Action," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 869-896, September.
  3. Christos Kollias & Stelios Makrydakis, 1997. "Is there a Greek-Turkish arms race?: Evidence from cointegration and causality tests," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 355-379.
  4. Christos Avramides, 1997. "Alternative models of Greek defence expenditures," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 145-187.
  5. Jurgen Brauer, 2002. "Survey and Review of the Defense Economics Literature on Greece and Turkey: What Have We Learned?," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 85-107.
  6. Nadir Ocal, 2002. "Asymmetric effects of military expenditure between Turkey and Greece," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(5), pages 405-416.
  7. Dalen, H.P. van & Swank, O.H., 1996. "Government spending cycles: Ideological or opportunistic?," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3107371, Tilburg University.
  8. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  9. repec:fth:inseep:9645 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Selami Sezgin & Julide Yildirim, 2002. "The Demand for Turkish Defence Expenditure," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 121-128.
  11. George Georgiou & Panayiotis Kapopoulos & Sophia Lazaretou, . "Modelling Greek - Turkish Rivalry: An Empirical Investigation Of Defence Spending Dynamics," Working Papers 9411, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  12. Pesaran, M.H. & Shin, Y., 1995. "An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modelling Approach to Cointegration Analysis," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9514, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  13. Christos Kollias, 2001. "Country survey military expenditure in Cyprus," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(6), pages 589-607.
  14. Smith, Ron, 1995. "The demand for military expenditure," Handbook of Defense Economics, in: Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), Handbook of Defense Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 69-87 Elsevier.
  15. Pesaran, M. H. & Shin, Y. & Smith, R. J., 1996. "Testing for the 'Existence of a Long-run Relationship'," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9622, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  16. Smith, R P, 1989. "Models of Military Expenditure," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(4), pages 345-59, Oct.-Dec..
  17. Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd, 1984. "Complementarity, free riding, and the military expenditures of NATO allies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1-2), pages 83-101, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bove, Vincenzo & Efthyvoulou, Georgios, 2013. "Political Cycles in Public Expenditure: Butter vs Guns," NEPS Working Papers 7/2013, Network of European Peace Scientists.
  2. Aamer S. Abu-Qarn & Yasmine M. Abdelfattah & J. Paul Dunne & Shadwa Zaher, 2012. "The Demand for Military Spending in Egypt," Working Papers 1210, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
  3. Andreas S. Andreou & George A. Zombanakis, 2011. "Financial Versus Human Resources In The Greek--Turkish Arms Race 10 Years On: A Forecasting Investigation Using Artificial Neural Networks," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 459-469, November.
  4. Kollias, Christos & Manolas, George & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2004. "Defence expenditure and economic growth in the European Union: A causality analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 553-569, July.
  5. Andreou, Andreas S. & Zombanakis, George A., 2010. "Financial vs human resources in the Greek-Turkish arms race 10 years on," MPRA Paper 38505, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Julide Yildirim & Nadir Ocal, 2006. "Arms Race And Economic Growth: The Case Of India And Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 37-45.
  7. Kollias, Christos & Messis, Petros & Mylonidis, Nikolaos & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2009. "Terrorism and the effectiveness of security spending in Greece: Policy implications of some empirical findings," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 788-802, September.

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