Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Relations between health care expenditure and income: an application of local quantile regressions

Contents:

Author Info

  • M. -Y. Chen
  • F. -L. Lin
  • C. -K. Chang
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    In this article, local relationship between per capita health care expenditure (HCE hereafter) and GDP is investigated with local quantile regressions. Logarithmic per capita GDP and HCE of 154 countries in 2001 and 25, 50 and 75% quantile regressions are considered. Three main findings are obtained from our empirical study. First, conditional distribution of per capita HCE on GDP is asymmetric. For lower GDP countries, the conditional distribution is skewed to the right which means less health care tends to be consumed. On the contrary, the conditional distribution is skewed to the left which implies more health care is apt to be consumed for high GDP countries. Second, variance of the conditional distribution is larger when per capita GDP is low and smaller when per capita GDP is high. This confirms the necessity of restricting the sample observations to OECD countries for holding the homogeneity of HCE when the conditional mean is considered. Third, whether health care is 'necessary' or 'luxury' depends on the level of per capita GDP. For 50% quantile, the income elasticity is significant >1 when per capita GDP is greater than US$ 1882 (ln(1882) = 7.56), which indicates that health care becomes luxury for countries with per capita GDP higher than US$ 1882. For 75% quantile, the elasticity is significantly >1 and health care becomes luxury for countries with per capita GDP higher than US$ 1737 (ln(1737) = 7.46). As to 25% quantile, the elasticity is significantly >1 and health care becomes luxury for countries with per capita GDP higher than US$ 1920 (ln(1920) = 7.56). These results indicate that health care is a necessity for 37 countries with per capita income lower than $ 1920 and is luxury for other countries.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/13504850601018114&magic=repec&7C&7C8674ECAB8BB840C6AD35DC6213A474B5
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics Letters.

    Volume (Year): 16 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 177-181

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:177-181

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/RAEL20

    Order Information:
    Web: http://www.tandfonline.com/pricing/journal/RAEL20

    Related research

    Keywords:

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Fitzenberger, Bernd, 1998. "The moving blocks bootstrap and robust inference for linear least squares and quantile regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 235-287, February.
    2. Koenker, Roger & Zhao, Quanshui, 1996. "Conditional Quantile Estimation and Inference for Arch Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(05), pages 793-813, December.
    3. Hitiris, Theo & Posnett, John, 1992. "The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 173-181, August.
    4. Koenker, Roger & Park, Beum J., 1996. "An interior point algorithm for nonlinear quantile regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 265-283.
    5. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    6. Blomqvist, A.G. & Carter, R.A.L., 1993. "Is Health Care Really a Luxury?," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics 9311, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
    7. Albert Okunade & Mustafa Karakus, 2001. "Unit root and cointegration tests: timeseries versus panel estimates for international health expenditure models," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(9), pages 1131-1137.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. El-Osta, Hisham S., 2011. "The Impact of Human Capital on Farm Operator Household Income," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(1), April.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:177-181. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.