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Unit root and cointegration tests: timeseries versus panel estimates for international health expenditure models

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  • Albert Okunade
  • Mustafa Karakus

Abstract

Classical regression estimates of the determinants of the OECD health expenditures are useful for policy formulation and evaluation. However, if the underlying timeseries data are not collectively stationary in levels, the estimated parameters are faulty and can misguide health policy. Until very recently, the crucial stationarity tests were ignored in a large number of studies on international comparisons. Stationarity (ADF, Phillips-Perron, IPS heterogeneous panel) and cointegration (Engle-Granger bivariate, Johansen's multivariate) tests are conducted here using 1960-1997 health expenditures data (1998 CD ROM) of 19 OECD countries. It is found that extending the time series data length affects the order of integration and number of cointegrating vectors. However, it is arguable whether the order of integration decreases or increases as more observations are added for testing. The failure of the Johansen and Engle-Granger cointegration tests for most of the OECD countries cautions policy makers against reliance on earlier research findings that were based on unstable relationships among variables in the regression models. (This is not the case for the UK, Greece and Ireland; policy implications have been derived for the UK.) Consequently, data calibrated in growth rates may be more appropriate for investigating the long run relationships collectively in a panel of OECD health expenditure model specifications.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2001)
Issue (Month): 9 ()
Pages: 1131-1137

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Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:33:y:2001:i:9:p:1131-1137

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Cited by:
  1. Baltagi, Badi H. & Moscone, Francesco, 2010. "Health Care Expenditure and Income in the OECD Reconsidered: Evidence from Panel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 4851, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Dreger, Christian & Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 2005. "Health Care Expenditures in OECD Countries: A Panel Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 1469, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Andrea Leiter & Engelbert Theurl, 2012. "The convergence of health care financing structures: empirical evidence from OECD-countries," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 7-18, February.
  4. Abbas, Faisal & Hiemenz, Ulrich, 2011. "Determinants of Public Health expenditures in Pakistan," Discussion Papers 118422, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  5. Thomas Barnay & Olivier Damette, 2012. "What drives Health Care Expenditure in France since 1950?," Working Papers hal-00717435, HAL.
  6. Faisal Abbas & Ulrich Hiemenz, 2013. "What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? Role of income, urbanization and unemployment," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 341-362, November.
  7. Dormont, Brigitte & Oliveira Martins, Joaquim & Pelgrin, Florian & Suhrcke, Marc, 2010. "Health, Expenditure, Longevity and Growth," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/7972, Paris Dauphine University.
  8. Thomas Barnay & Olivier Damette, 2012. "What drives Health Care Expenditure in France since 1950? A time-series study with structural breaks and nonlinearity approaches," Working Papers halshs-00856117, HAL.
  9. M. -Y. Chen & F. -L. Lin & C. -K. Chang, 2009. "Relations between health care expenditure and income: an application of local quantile regressions," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 177-181.
  10. Catherine Bac & Yannick le Pen, 2002. "An International Comparison of Health Care Expenditure Determinants," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 C5-1, International Conferences on Panel Data.
  11. Munic Boungnarasy, 2011. "Health care expenditures in Asia countries: Panel data analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(4), pages 3169-3178.
  12. Seher Sülkü & Asena Caner, 2011. "Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 29-38, February.
  13. Chakroun, Mohamed, 2009. "Health care expenditure and GDP: An international panel smooth transition approach," MPRA Paper 14322, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Hartwig, Jochen, 2008. "What drives health care expenditure?--Baumol's model of 'unbalanced growth' revisited," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 603-623, May.
  15. Tang, Chor Foon, 2011. "Multivariate Granger Causality and the Dynamic Relationship between Health Care Spending, Income and Relative Price of Health Care in Malaysia," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 52(2), pages 199-214, December.

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