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Le Grand marché et le commerce extérieur

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  • Patrick Messerlin
  • Jean-François Loué

Abstract

[eng] The Single Market and the External Trade From the Treaty of Rome to the Single Market, the Community's trade policy has been one of transforming a closed commercial space into a single market where goods and services are freely mobile. However, the construction of Europe has not represented in every area a large movement toward free trade: as it sought other objectives, especially social and industrial ones, the Community has also been led to protect its markets. In order to measure the distance covered, this article starts with a description of the situation at the beginning of the sixties, illustrating in particular the partition of the markets linked to the protection of colonial relations, and then recalls the main stages of the construction of the Big- Market, the trade policy of the Community toward outside countries, and its position in the main international negotiations. Undoubtedly, the construction of Europe has contributed to the development of the intra-community trade. However, this occured partly to the detriment of other countries: between 1965 and 1990, the increase in imports of the twelve European countries, considered as a single country, has been very moderate relatively to their income, not in keeping to the opening of the American economy. Describing the policy in a few sectors seems to be a good way to explain the main protection mechanisms: these are generally poorly efficient, often with perverse effects. If the Community works to suppress barriers inside its own market, it also uses them in turn, against outside producers, as most countries often do. [fre] De la signature du traité de Rome au Grand marché, la politique commerciale de la Communauté s'est donné pour ambition de transformer un espace commercial cloisonné en un marché unique où s 'appliquerait sans restriction la libre circulation des biens et des services, ce qui a entraîné la constitution d'une politique commerciale commune. Toutefois, la construction européenne n'a pas été dans tous les domaines un grand mouvement de libéralisation des échanges : en poursuivant de façon concurrente d'autres objectifs, en particulier des objectifs sociaux et industriels, la Communauté a aussi été conduite à protéger ses marchés. Afin que l'on prenne la mesure du chemin parcouru, cet article commence par une description de la situation commerciale au début des années soixante, et illustre notamment le cloisonnement des échanges lié à la sauvegarde des liens coloniaux, puis rappelle les principales étapes de la construction du Grand marché,la politique commerciale de la Communauté vis-à-vis des pays tiers, et ses positions dans les grandes négociations internationales. Incontestablement, la construction européenne a favorisé le développement des échanges intra-communautaires. Toutefois, ceci s'est fait, dans une certaine mesure, au détriment des pays tiers: entre 1965 et 1990, l'ouverture aux importations des douze pays de la Communauté considérés comme un seul pays a été très modérée, sans commune mesure, par exemple, avec l'ouverture de l'économie américaine. Exposer la politique suivie dans quelques secteurs permet alors de démonter les principaux mécanismes de protection; ceux-ci ont dans l'ensemble une efficacité limitée sur l'emploi et leurs effets pervers sont parfois redoutables. Si la Communauté s'emploie à les démanteler sur son marché intérieur, elle en use à son tour vis-à-vis de producteurs extérieurs, comme le font d'ailleurs la plupart des pays.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ofce.1993.1304
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 43 (1993)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 243-272

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1993_num_43_1_1304

Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1993.1304
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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