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Fiscal Instruments of a Support of the Families with Children and their Changes in Developed Countries

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  • Leoš Vítek
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    Abstract

    Governments usually try to use fiscal instruments to support the families with children. However, fiscal instruments also affect the work effort and labour demand. Problems associated with (de)stimulantive effects of taxes, insurance premia and benefits arise, among other things, also due to the fact that because of various reasons, these instruments are not effectively coordinated and often operate in opposite directions. The article analyses changes in fiscal instruments of a support of the families with children in developed countries over the past decade and focuses on the development of selected tax–benefit indicators that describe the fundamental characteristics of the taxation of the families with children. Given that the universal, family-type social benefits often take the form of negative taxes, the paper includes also this type of family benefits. The results of the analysis show that the vast majority of developed countries strongly support the families with children via fiscal instruments. It also turns out that over the past decade the governments have rather reduced effective taxation of the families with children. During the last two years, however, some countries recorded an increase in the taxation of families, including the families with children. Countries that have over the past ten years successfully sought to support the families with children relied on progressive reliefs or benefits targeted at the families with more than two children.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by University of Economics, Prague in its journal European Financial and Accounting Journal.

    Volume (Year): 2011 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 60-84

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    Handle: RePEc:prg:jnlefa:v:2011:y:2011:i:4:id:20:p:60-84

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    Related research

    Keywords: Taxes; Support of the families with children; Family benefits;

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    References

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    1. Robert A. Moffitt & John Karl Scholz, 2009. "Trends in the Level and Distribution of Income Support," NBER Working Papers 15488, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, . "Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries," Working Papers 122, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    3. G. Carone & A. Salom�ki, 2001. "Reforms in tax-benefit systems in order to increase emplyoment incentives in the EU," European Economy - Economic Papers 160, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    4. Edward C. Prescott, 2004. "Why Do Americans Work So Much More Than Europeans?," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000000413, UCLA Department of Economics.
    5. Primož Dolenc & Suzana Laporšek, 2010. "Tax Wedge on Labour and its Effect on Employment Growth in the European Union," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(4), pages 344-358.
    6. Kamila Fialová & Martina Mysíková, 2009. "Labour Market Participation: The Impact of Social Benefits in the Czech Republic and Selected European Countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2009(3), pages 235-250.
    7. Alberto F. Alesina & Silvia Ardagna, 2009. "Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes Versus Spending," NBER Working Papers 15438, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Ondřej Schneider & Tomáš Jelínek, 2005. "Distributive Impact of Czech Social Security and Tax Systems: Dynamics in Early 2000s," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2005(3), pages 221-237.
    9. Alberto Behar, 2009. "Tax Wedges, Unemployment Benefits and Labour Market Outcomes in the New EU Members," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 3(1), pages 069-092, March.
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