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Schema Congruity - A Basis For Evaluating Ambient Advertising Effectiveness

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  • Jurca Maria Alina

    ()
    (Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Stiinte Economice si Gestiunea Afacerilor,)

  • Plăiaș Ioan

    ()
    (Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Stiinte Economice si Gestiunea Afacerilor,)

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    Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the light in the under-researched field of ambient advertising and can offer a theoretical basis for future empirical research on the effectiveness of this promotional tool.

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    File URL: http://anale.steconomiceuoradea.ro/volume/2013/n1/187.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics in its journal The Journal of the Faculty of Economics - Economic.

    Volume (Year): 1 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 1 (July)
    Pages: 1765-1774

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    Handle: RePEc:ora:journl:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:1765-1774

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    Postal: Universitatii str. 1, Office F209, 410087 Oradea, Bihor
    Phone: +40259408799
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    Web page: http://anale.steconomiceuoradea.ro/
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    Related research

    Keywords: advertising; ambient advertising; schema; schema congruity theory; clutter; consumer behavior;

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    References

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    1. Stayman, Douglas M & Alden, Dana L & Smith, Karen H, 1992. " Some Effects of Schematic Processing on Consumer Expectations and Disconfirmation Judgments," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 240-55, September.
    2. Friestad, Marian & Wright, Peter, 1994. " The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-31, June.
    3. Brown, Stephen, 2004. "O customer, where art thou?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 61-70.
    4. Meyers-Levy, Joan & Tybout, Alice M, 1989. " Schema Congruity as a Basis for Product Evaluation," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 39-54, June.
    5. Sujan, Mita, 1985. " Consumer Knowledge: Effects on Evaluation Strategies Mediating Consumer Judgments," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 31-46, June.
    6. Heckler, Susan E & Childers, Terry L, 1992. " The Role of Expectancy and Relevancy in Memory for Verbal and Visual Information: What Is Incongruency?," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(4), pages 475-92, March.
    7. Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E M & Baumgartner, Hans, 1992. " The Role of Optimum Stimulation Level in Exploratory Consumer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(3), pages 434-48, December.
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