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A Semi-Nonparametric Approach to the Demand for Money in Pakistan

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  • Haroon Sarwar

    ()

  • Zakir Hussain

    ()
    (University of Sargodha, Pakistan.)

  • Masood Sarwar

    ()
    (University of Sargodha, Pakistan.)

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    Abstract

    The degree of substitutability of different monetary assets serves as a valuable source of information for Pakistan’s monetary authorities in the context of money demand analysis. Barnett’s (1980) concept of the micro-foundations of money demand has paved the way for a more comprehensive demand system analysis. Locally flexible functional forms are unable to estimate substitution elasticities at all data points, and thus, we use the asymptotically ideal model, which is a semi-nonparametric globally flexible functional form. Our data on income, price, and substitution elasticities show that there is less-than-perfect substitution among monetary assets. The results of Allan and Morishima elasticities show that the former are inherently biased toward showing monetary assets as complements, making Morishima a better choice. The study recommends that it is high time Pakistan’s monetary authorities abandoned the simple-sum aggregation method, which assumes perfect substitution among monetary assets.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics in its journal Lahore Journal of Economics.

    Volume (Year): 16 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (Jul-Dec)
    Pages: 87-110

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    Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:16:y:2011:i:2:p:87-110

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    Keywords: Substitution; semi-nonparametric; globally flexible; Morishima elasticity.;

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    References

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    1. Barnett, William A. & Lee, Yul W. & Wolfe, Michael D., 1985. "The three-dimensional global properties of the minflex laurent, generalized leontief, and translog flexible functional forms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 3-31.
    2. Barnett, William A, 1983. "New Indices of Money Supply and the Flexible Laurent Demand System," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 1(1), pages 7-23, January.
    3. Leigh Drake & Adrian R. Fleissig, 2004. "Semi-Nonparametric Estimates of Currency Substitution: the Demand for Sterling in Europe," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(3), pages 374-394, 08.
    4. Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Hye, Qazi Muhammad Adnan, 2011. "Financial Liberalization And Demand For Money: A Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34795, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Fleissig, Adrian R & Swofford, James L, 1997. "Dynamic Asymptotically Ideal Models and Finite Approximation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 482-92, October.
    6. repec:clg:wpaper:2001-01 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Barnett, William A., 1985. "The minflex-laurent translog flexible functional form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 33-44.
    8. Fisher, Douglas & Fleissig, Adrian R, 1997. "Monetary Aggregation and the Demand for Assets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(4), pages 458-75, November.
    9. Serletis, Apostolos & Shahmoradi, Asghar, 2007. "Flexible Functional Forms, Curvature Conditions, And The Demand For Assets," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(04), pages 455-486, September.
    10. Syed Muhammad Tariq & Kent Matthews, 1997. "The Demand for Simple-sum and Divisia Monetary Aggregates for Pakistan: A Cointegration Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(3), pages 275-291.
    11. Barnett, William A. & Lee, Yul W. & Wolfe, Michael, 1987. "The global properties of the two minflex Laurent flexible functional forms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 281-298, November.
    12. Serletis, Apostolos & Shahmoradi, Asghar, 2005. "Semi-Nonparametric Estimates Of The Demand For Money In The United States," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(04), pages 542-559, September.
    13. Guilkey, David K & Lovell, C A Knox, 1980. "On the Flexibility of the Translog Approximation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 21(1), pages 137-47, February.
    14. Fleissig, Adrian & Swofford, James L., 1996. "A dynamic asymptotically ideal model of money demand," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 371-380, April.
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    17. Barnett, William A. & Jonas, Andrew B., 1983. "The Muntz-Szatz demand system : An application of a globally well behaved series expansion," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 337-342.
    18. Douglas Fisher & Adrian R. Fleissig & Apostolos Serletis, 2001. "An empirical comparison of flexible demand system functional forms," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 59-80.
    19. Gallant, A. Ronald, 1981. "On the bias in flexible functional forms and an essentially unbiased form : The fourier flexible form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 211-245, February.
    20. Barnett, William A., 1978. "The user cost of money," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 145-149.
    21. James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
    22. Leigh Drake & Adrian R. Fleissig & James L. Swofford, 2003. "A Semi--nonparametric Approach to the Demand for UK Monetary Assets," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 70(277), pages 99-120, February.
    23. Cooper, Russel J & McLaren, Keith R, 1996. "A System of Demand Equations Satisfying Effectively Global Regularity Conditions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 359-64, May.
    24. Adrian R. Fleissig & Apostolos Serletis, 2002. "Semi-non-parametric estimates of substitution for Canadian monetary assets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(1), pages 78-91, February.
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