Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea
AbstractDue to eutrophication caused by heavy loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, the biological conditions of the Baltic Sea have been disturbed: large sea bottom areas without any biological life, low stocks of cods, and toxic blue green algaes. It is recognized that the nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Baltic Sea must be reduced by 50% in order to restore the sea. The main purpose of this paper is to calculate cost effective nitrogen and phosphorus reductions to the Baltic Sea from the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. The results show a significant difference in minimum costs of decreasing nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Sea: approximately 12 000 millions of SEK per year and 3 000 millions of SEK respectively for reductions by 50%. It is also shown that a change from a policy of cost-effective nutrient reductions to a policy where each country reduces the nutrient loads by 50% increase total costs for both nitrogen and phosphorus reductions by about 300%. The results are, however, sensitive to several of the underlying assumptions and should therefore be interpreted with much caution. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental and Resource Economics.
Volume (Year): 10 (1997)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100263
Baltic Sea; eutrophication; nitrogen; phosphorus; cost effective;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hansen, Lars Gårn, 2004. "Nitrogen Fertilizer Demand from Danish Crop Farms - Regulatory Implications of Farm Heterogeneity," MPRA Paper 48366, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Elofsson, Katarina, 2003. "Cost-effective reductions of stochastic agricultural loads to the Baltic Sea," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 13-31, November.
- Turner, R. Kerry & Georgiou, Stavros & Gren, Ing-Marie & Wulff, Fredric & Barrett, Scott & Soderqvist, Tore & Bateman, Ian J. & Folke, Carl & Langaas, Sindre & Zylicz, Tomasz, 1999. "Managing nutrient fluxes and pollution in the Baltic: an interdisciplinary simulation study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 333-352, August.
- Ing-Marie Gren & Paul Jannke & Katarina Elofsson, 1997. "Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(4), pages 341-362, December.
- Ing-Marie Gren, 2001. "International Versus National Actions Against Nitrogen Pollution of the Baltic Sea," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 20(1), pages 41-59, September.
RePEc Biblio mentionsAs found on the RePEc Biblio, the curated bibliography for Economics:
- > Environmental and Natural Resource Economics > Environmental Economics > Economics of eutrophication
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.