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International Versus National Actions Against Nitrogen Pollution of the Baltic Sea

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  • Ing-Marie Gren

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Abstract

Large nitrogen loads to the Baltic Sea play an important role for currentdamages caused by eutrophication: large sea bottom areas without anybiological life, low stocks of cods, and toxic blue green algae. In spite of therelatively large supply of biological and physical data on the sea,difficulties remain with respect to linking costs of nitrogen reductions withthe dispersion of associated benefits among countries. The purpose of thisstudy is therefore to analyse and calculate efficient nitrogen reductionsand associated net benefits under international co-ordination of nitrogenreductions and single country actions for two different specifications ofmarginal benefits: uniform and differentiated. Further, comparisons aremade with the current ministerial agreement of 50 per cent nitrogenreduction to the Baltic Sea. The empirical results show that total netbenefits under internationally co-ordinated actions are considerablyhigher than when countries act on their own. Another result is thatdifferentiated benefits give higher total net benefits than uniform, and alsoimply larger differences in net benefits among countries. However, resultsindicate that uniform marginal benefits generate net benefits for allcountries from co-ordinated actions as compared to single country actions. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental and Resource Economics.

Volume (Year): 20 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1 (September)
Pages: 41-59

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Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:20:y:2001:i:1:p:41-59

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Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100263

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Keywords: Baltic Sea nitrogen reductions; co-ordination; uniform and differentiated marginal benefits;

References

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  1. Michael Hoel, 1992. "International environment conventions: The case of uniform reductions of emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 141-159, March.
  2. Turner, R. Kerry & Georgiou, Stavros & Gren, Ing-Marie & Wulff, Fredric & Barrett, Scott & Soderqvist, Tore & Bateman, Ian J. & Folke, Carl & Langaas, Sindre & Zylicz, Tomasz, 1999. "Managing nutrient fluxes and pollution in the Baltic: an interdisciplinary simulation study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 333-352, August.
  3. Gren, Ing-Marie, 1999. "Value of land as a pollutant sink for international waters," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 419-431, September.
  4. Markowska, Agnieszka & Zylicz, Tomasz, 1999. "Costing an international public good: the case of the Baltic Sea," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 301-316, August.
  5. Chander, Parkash & Tulkens, Henry, 1994. "A Core-Theoretic Solution for the Design of Cooperative Agreements on Transfrontier Pollution," Working Papers 897, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  6. Barrett, Scott, 1994. "Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 878-94, Supplemen.
  7. Kaitala, V. & Mäler, K.-G. & Tulkens, H., . "The acid rain game as a resource allocation process with an application to the international cooperation among Finland, Russia and Estonia," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1150, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  8. Bystrom, Olof, 1998. "The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 321-331, September.
  9. Ing-Marie Gren & Paul Jannke & Katarina Elofsson, 1997. "Cost-Effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(4), pages 341-362, December.
  10. Gren, Ing-Marie & Jonzon, Ylva & Lindqvist, Martin, 2008. "Costs of nutrient reductions to the Baltic Sea," Department of Economics publications 3212, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Economics.
  11. Gren, Ing-Marie, 1995. "The Value of Investing in Wetlands for Nitrogen Abatement," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 22(2), pages 157-72.
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