Is the Local Business Tax a User Tax? - An Empirical Investigation for Germany
AbstractThe theory of fiscal federalism argues that local governments should only tax mobile tax bases for the purpose of charging user taxes which correct for congestion effects. Empirically, we observe that local governments do levy taxes on mobile bases. In Germany, this is the local business tax (Gewerbesteuer). Since such taxes are efficient only if they are raised to cover congestion effects, the justification for these taxes usually put forward is that they serve as user taxes. This paper tests empirically whether that justification holds for the case of German local business taxes. Our findings do not support the user tax argument. Instead, our results suggest that local governments use the local business tax as a source of revenue for general public expenditures. Our empirical analysis finds statistically significant positive effects of changes in expenditures for social assistance and interest payments on subsequent tax rate changes. Our results are thus consistent with the view prevailing in the literature according to which local business tax rates are set in response to general financial pressure in local government budgets.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics in its journal Journal of Economics and Statistics.
Volume (Year): 221 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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Local public finance; user taxes; local business tax;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
- H71 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
- H72 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Budget and Expenditures
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- Clemens Fuest & Bernd Huber, 2003. "Zur Koordinierung der Unternehmensbesteuerung in Europa," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 72(3), pages 378-390.
- Joachim Wilde, 2003. "Was reizt Sozialhilfeempfänger zum Ausstieg? - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit dem Niedrigeinkommens-Panel," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 223(6), pages 719-742, November.
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