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The shape of option implied volatility: a study based on market net demand pressure

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  • Tianyu Mo
  • Zhenlong Zheng
  • William T. Lin
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    Abstract

    Purpose–Due to disequilibrium between supply and demand in the option market, the option market-maker is under exposure to certain risks because of their net option positions. This paper aims to pay attention to whether the risk award affects the option price and the shape of implied volatility in the market-maker system. Design/methodology/approach–The paper first eliminates the part of implied volatility explained by underlying asset's stochastic volatility-jump price process, and second sorts out market investors' net demand data from TAIEX Options tick by tick deal data and then finally considers three market maker's risks – unhedgeable risk, capital constrain risk and asymmetric information risk, and how they affect implied volatility's level and slope. Findings–Through the research in the TAIEX Option market, the paper finds that, under unhedgeable risk, net demand pressure has a significant impact on implied volatility. Especially, unhedgeable risk due to underlying asset's stochastic volatility has the best explanation for implied volatility level, and unhedgeable risk due to underlying asset's jump can explain implied volatility slope to some extent. Capital constrain risk and asymmetric information risk have an insignificant impact on implied volatility. Research limitations/implications–The findings in this study suggest that the risk award affects the option price and the shape of implied volatility in the market-maker system and different risks have different effects on the level and slope of option implied volatility. Practical implications–This paper finds the influence factors of the option price in the market-maker system. It's useful for China's financial government and investors to learn the price tendency and regular pattern in the future China option market. Originality/value–This is the first time that a net demand pressure based option pricing model is used, which is derived by Garleanu, Pedersen and Poteshman, to study the TAIEX Options' implied volatility. And the paper improves the methods eliminating the part of implied volatility explained by underlying asset's stochastic volatility-jump price process.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal China Finance Review International.

    Volume (Year): 2 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 (February)
    Pages: 27-52

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    Handle: RePEc:eme:cfripp:v:2:y:2012:i:1:p:27-52

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    Related research

    Keywords: Implied volatility; Market maker; Net demand pressure; Option; Options markets; Supply and demand;

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    References

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    1. Garleanu, Nicolae Bogdan & Pedersen, Lasse Heje & Poteshman, Allen M, 2005. "Demand-Based Option Pricing," CEPR Discussion Papers 5420, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. " The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    3. Nicolas P. B. Bollen & Robert E. Whaley, 2004. "Does Net Buying Pressure Affect the Shape of Implied Volatility Functions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 711-753, 04.
    4. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    5. Dennis, Patrick & Mayhew, Stewart, 2002. "Risk-Neutral Skewness: Evidence from Stock Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(03), pages 471-493, September.
    6. Carole Comerton-Forde & Terrence Hendershott & Charles M. Jones & Pamela C. Moulton & Mark S. Seasholes, 2010. "Time Variation in Liquidity: The Role of Market-Maker Inventories and Revenues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 295-331, 02.
    7. Merton, Robert C., 1976. "Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 125-144.
    8. Bates, David S, 1996. "Jumps and Stochastic Volatility: Exchange Rate Processes Implicit in Deutsche Mark Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 69-107.
    9. Alexander David & Pietro Varonesi, 1999. "Option prices with uncertain fundamentals theory and evidence on the dynamics of implied volatilities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-47, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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