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Continuous Female Workers: How Different Are They from Other Women?

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  • Elaine Sorensen

    (Urban Institute)

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    Abstract

    Many economists have argued that women earn less than men because they work intermittently. Although several studies have estimated the extent to which intermittent labor force participation affects women's earnings, previous research has not compared the labor market outcomes of women who work continuously to those of other women. This paper estimates a bivariate probit selection model for intermittent and continuous female workers. The results show that women who work continuously have higher levels of education and are more likely to have remained single and childless than other women. The paper also finds a large pay disparity between intermittent and continuous female workers, most of which is due to differences in measured characteristics. Implications for labor market discrimination are discussed.

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    File URL: http://college.holycross.edu/RePEc/eej/Archive/Volume19/V19N1P15_32.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Eastern Economic Association in its journal Eastern Economic Journal.

    Volume (Year): 19 (1993)
    Issue (Month): 1 (Winter)
    Pages: 15-32

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    Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:19:y:1993:i:1:p:15-32

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    Web page: http://www.ramapo.edu/eea/journal.html
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    Related research

    Keywords: Female; Women;

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    References

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    1. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    2. Blakemore, Arthur E & Low, Stuart A, 1984. "Sex Differences in Occupational Selection: The Case of College Majors," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 157-63, February.
    3. Goldin, Claudia, 1989. "Life-Cycle Labor-Force Participation of Married Women: Historical Evidence and Implications," Scholarly Articles 2656816, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    4. Goldin, Claudia & Polachek, Solomon, 1987. "Residual Differences by Sex: Perspectives on the Gender Gap in Earnings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 143-51, May.
    5. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
    7. Blau, Francine D & Ferber, Marianne A, 1987. "Discrimination: Empirical Evidence from the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 316-20, May.
    8. Gronau, Reuben, 1974. "Wage Comparisons-A Selectivity Bias," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1119-43, Nov.-Dec..
    9. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
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    Cited by:
    1. Cengiz Kallek, 1998. "Economic Views of ABU UBAYD," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 1-22.
    2. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "Evidence of demand factors in the determination of the labor market intermittency penalty," Working Paper 2007-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    3. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2007. "The Role of Labor Market Intermittency in Explaining Gender Wage Differentials," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 417-421, May.
    4. Selamah Abdullah Yusof, 1998. "Labour Force Attachment: Explaining Gender-Differences In Earnings And Employment," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 51-68, June.
    5. Mansor H. Ibrahim, 1998. "Bayesian Estimation Of A Simple Simultaneous Equation Model Using Gibbs Sampling," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 6(1), pages 69-78, June.

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