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Freely Disposable Time: A Time and Money Integrated Measure of Poverty and Freedom

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  • Hobbes, Marieke
  • De Groot, Wouter T.
  • Van Der Voet, Ester
  • Sarkhel, Sukanya
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    Abstract

    This paper develops, tests, and discusses a metric for livelihood assessment that integrates cash flow and time use households. It expresses how much time the household adults have left after satisfying the household’s basic needs (e.g., for food, sleep, care, consumables, and leisure). This “freely disposable time” (FDT) may be put to any use available and allowed in the local context, such as above-basic leisure, work to acquire above-basic consumer goods, or investments in the future such as education or soil conservation. Thus, FDT represents people’s freedoms and a key condition for any out-of-poverty strategy. The FDT methodology is illustrated with a number of characteristic livelihood strategies and tested on peri-urban farming livelihoods in India and some typical Dutch households. The FDT outcomes, methodology, strengths, and limitations are compared with those of an allied, “Discretionary Time” indicator, paired time/money indicators and purely monetary (e.g., income or expenditure) indicators of poverty and welfare.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X11000751
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 12 ()
    Pages: 2055-2068

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:12:p:2055-2068

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

    Related research

    Keywords: livelihoods approach; poverty assessment; social indicator; basic needs; time poverty; poverty line; freedoms; discretionary time; India;

    References

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    1. Ellis, Frank, 2000. "Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296966.
    2. Ravallion, Martin & Bidani, Benu, 1994. "How Robust Is a Poverty Profile?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(1), pages 75-102, January.
    3. Lanjouw, Jean Olson & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Poverty Measurement Based on Different Definitions of Consumption," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 47(1), pages 25-42, March.
    4. S. Streeten, Paul, 1979. "Basics needs: Premises and promises," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 136-146, January.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:10:y:2006:i:12:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ravallion, Martin, 1994. "Measuring Social Welfare with and without Poverty Lines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 359-64, May.
    7. Elena Bardasi & Quentin Wodon, 2010. "Working Long Hours and Having No Choice: Time Poverty in Guinea," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 45-78.
    8. Quentin Wodon, 1997. "Food energy intake and cost of basic needs: Measuring poverty in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 66-101.
    9. Bardasi, Elena & Wodon, Quentin, 2006. "Measuring Time Poverty and Analyzing Its Determinants: Concepts and Application to Guinea," MPRA Paper 11082, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Rojas, Mariano, 2008. "Experienced Poverty and Income Poverty in Mexico: A Subjective Well-Being Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1078-1093, June.
    11. repec:ese:iserwp:2005-09 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Michael Carter & Christopher Barrett, 2006. "The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: An asset-based approach," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 178-199.
    13. Reardon, Thomas & Vosti, Stephen A., 1995. "Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: Asset categories and investment poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 1495-1506, September.
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