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A kinematic wave theory of multi-commodity network traffic flow

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  • Jin, Wen-Long
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    Abstract

    A systematic understanding of traffic dynamics on road networks is crucial for many transportation studies and can help to develop more efficient ramp metering, evacuation, signal control, and other management and control strategies. In this study, we present a theory of multi-commodity network traffic flow based on the Lighthill–Whitham–Richards (LWR) model. In particular, we attempt to analyze kinematic waves of the Riemann problem for a general junction with multiple upstream and downstream links. In this theory, kinematic waves on a link can be determined by its initial condition and prevailing stationary state. In addition to a stationary state, a flimsy interior state can develop next to the junction on a link. In order to pick out unique, physical solutions, we introduce two types of entropy conditions in supply-demand space such that (i) speeds of kinematic waves should be negative on upstream links and positive on downstream links, and (ii) fair merging and First-In-First-Out diverging rules are used to prescribe fluxes from interior states. We prove that, for given initial upstream demands, turning proportions, and downstream supplies, there exists a unique critical demand level satisfying the entropy conditions. It follows that stationary states and kinematic waves on all links exist and are unique, since they are uniquely determined by the critical demand level. For a simple model of urban or freeway intersections with four upstream and four downstream links, we demonstrate that theoretical solutions are consistent with numerical ones from a multi-commodity Cell Transmission Model. In a sense, the proposed theory can be considered as the continuous version of the multi-commodity Cell Transmission Model with fair merging and First-In-First-Out diverging rules. Finally we discuss future research topics along this line.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part B: Methodological.

    Volume (Year): 46 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 8 ()
    Pages: 1000-1022

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:46:y:2012:i:8:p:1000-1022

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    Related research

    Keywords: Lighthill–Whitham–Richards model; Multi-commodity Cell Transmission Model; Fair merging; First-in-first-out diverging; Riemann problem; Entropy conditions;

    References

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    1. Daganzo, Carlos F., 1997. "A continuum theory of traffic dynamics for freeways with special lanes," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 83-102, April.
    2. Jin, W. L. & Zhang, H. M., 2003. "On the distribution schemes for determining flows through a merge," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 521-540, July.
    3. Gipps, P. G., 1986. "A model for the structure of lane-changing decisions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 403-414, October.
    4. Jin, Wen-Long, 2010. "A kinematic wave theory of lane-changing traffic flow," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(8-9), pages 1001-1021, September.
    5. Jin, Wen-Long, 2009. "Asymptotic traffic dynamics arising in diverge-merge networks with two intermediate links," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 575-595, June.
    6. Castillo, J. M. Del & Benítez, F. G., 1995. "On the functional form of the speed-density relationship--II: Empirical investigation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 391-406, October.
    7. Ansorge, Rainer, 1990. "What does the entropy condition mean in traffic flow theory?," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 133-143, April.
    8. Daganzo, Carlos F., 1995. "The cell transmission model, part II: Network traffic," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 79-93, April.
    9. Papageorgiou, Markos, 1990. "Dynamic modeling, assignment, and route guidance in traffic networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 471-495, December.
    10. Daganzo, Carlos F., 1995. "Properties of link travel time functions under dynamic loads," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 95-98, April.
    11. Lo, Hong K. & Szeto, W. Y., 2002. "A cell-based variational inequality formulation of the dynamic user optimal assignment problem," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 421-443, June.
    12. Muñoz, Juan Carlos & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2002. "The bottleneck mechanism of a freeway diverge," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 483-505, July.
    13. Wu, J. H. & Chen, Y. & Florian, M., 1998. "The continuous dynamic network loading problem: a mathematical formulation and solution method," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 173-187, April.
    14. Jin, Wen-Long, 2010. "Continuous kinematic wave models of merging traffic flow," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(8-9), pages 1084-1103, September.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jin, Wen-Long & Gan, Qi-Jian & Gayah, Vikash V., 2013. "A kinematic wave approach to traffic statics and dynamics in a double-ring network," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 114-131.
    2. Jin, Wen-Long, 2013. "Stability and bifurcation in network traffic flow: A Poincaré map approach," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 191-208.
    3. Jin, Wen-Long, 2013. "A multi-commodity Lighthill–Whitham–Richards model of lane-changing traffic flow," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 361-377.

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