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A comprehensive analysis of built environment characteristics on household residential choice and auto ownership levels

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  • Bhat, Chandra R.
  • Guo, Jessica Y.
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    Abstract

    There has been an increasing interest in the land use-transportation connection in the past decade, motivated by the possibility that design policies associated with the built environment can be used to control, manage, and shape individual traveler behavior and aggregate travel demand. In this line of research and application pursuit, it is critical to understand whether the empirically observed association between the built environment and travel behavior-related variables is a true reflection of underlying causality or simply a spurious correlation attributable to the intervening relationship between the built environment and the characteristics of people who choose to live in particular built environments. In this research paper, we identify the research designs and methodologies that may be used to test the presence of "true" causality versus residential sorting-based "spurious" associations in the land-use transportation connection. The paper then develops a methodological formulation to control for residential sorting effects in the analysis of the effect of built environment attributes on travel behavior-related choices. The formulation is applied to comprehensively examine the impact of the built environment, transportation network attributes, and demographic characteristics on residential choice and car ownership decisions. The model formulation takes the form of a joint mixed multinomial logit-ordered response structure that (a) accommodates differential sensitivity to the built environment and transportation network variables due to both demographic and unobserved household attributes and (b) controls for the self-selection of individuals into neighborhoods based on car ownership preferences stemming from both demographic characteristics and unobserved household factors. The analysis in the paper represents, to our knowledge, the first instance of the formulation and application of a unified mixed multinomial logit-ordered response structure in the econometric literature. The empirical analysis in the paper is based on the residential choice and car ownership decisions of San Francisco Bay area residents.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part B: Methodological.

    Volume (Year): 41 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 5 (June)
    Pages: 506-526

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:41:y:2007:i:5:p:506-526

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    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Bhat, Chandra & Lockwood, Allison, 2004. "On distinguishing between physically active and physically passive episodes and between travel and activity episodes: an analysis of weekend recreational participation in the San Francisco Bay area," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 573-592, October.
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    4. Bhat, Chandra R. & Guo, Jessica, 2004. "A mixed spatially correlated logit model: formulation and application to residential choice modeling," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 147-168, February.
    5. Cervero, Robert & Duncan, Michael, 2003. "Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt6zr1x95m, University of California Transportation Center.
    6. Khattak, Asad J. & Rodriguez, Daniel, 2005. "Travel behavior in neo-traditional neighborhood developments: A case study in USA," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 481-500, July.
    7. Susan Handy & Kelly Clifton, 2001. "Local shopping as a strategy for reducing automobile travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 317-346, November.
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    9. Schwanen, Tim & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2003. "The Extent and Determinants of Dissonance Between Actual and Preferred Residential Neighborhood Type," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8728p24s, University of California Transportation Center.
    10. Jordan Louviere & Kenneth Train & Moshe Ben-Akiva & Chandra Bhat & David Brownstone & Trudy Cameron & Richard Carson & J. Deshazo & Denzil Fiebig & William Greene & David Hensher & Donald Waldman, 2005. "Recent Progress on Endogeneity in Choice Modeling," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 255-265, December.
    11. Chamberlain, Gary, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 225-38, January.
    12. Bhat, Chandra R., 2003. "Simulation estimation of mixed discrete choice models using randomized and scrambled Halton sequences," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 837-855, November.
    13. Daly, Andrew, 1982. "Estimating choice models containing attraction variables," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 5-15, February.
    14. Bhat, Chandra R. & Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan, 2005. "A multidimensional mixed ordered-response model for analyzing weekend activity participation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 255-278, March.
    15. Bhat, Chandra & Zhao, Huimin, 2002. "The spatial analysis of activity stop generation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 557-575, July.
    16. Golledge, Reginald G & Garling, Tommy, 2003. "Cognitive Maps and Urban Travel," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1bp9f7wc, University of California Transportation Center.
    17. Bhat, Chandra R. & Gossen, Rachel, 2004. "A mixed multinomial logit model analysis of weekend recreational episode type choice," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 767-787, November.
    18. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
    19. Bhat, Chandra R. & Castelar, Saul, 2002. "A unified mixed logit framework for modeling revealed and stated preferences: formulation and application to congestion pricing analysis in the San Francisco Bay area," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 593-616, August.
    20. Bhat, Chandra R. & Singh, Sujit K., 2000. "A comprehensive daily activity-travel generation model system for workers," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-22, January.
    21. Bhat, Chandra R. & Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan & Axhausen, Kay W., 2005. "An analysis of multiple interepisode durations using a unifying multivariate hazard model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 797-823, November.
    22. Boarnet, Marlon & Crane, Randall, 2001. "The influence of land use on travel behavior: specification and estimation strategies," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 823-845, November.
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    Cited by:
    1. Su, Qing & Zhou, Liren, 2012. "Parking management, financial subsidies to alternatives to drive alone and commute mode choices in Seattle," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 88-97.
    2. Kim, Jinwon & Brownstone, David, 2010. "The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt31m0w2x3, University of California Transportation Center.
    3. Bhat, Chandra R. & Sener, Ipek N. & Eluru, Naveen, 2010. "A flexible spatially dependent discrete choice model: Formulation and application to teenagers' weekday recreational activity participation," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(8-9), pages 903-921, September.
    4. Su, Qing, 2010. "Travel demand in the US urban areas: A system dynamic panel data approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 110-117, February.
    5. Jou, Rong-Chang & Huang, Wen-Hsiu & Wu, Yuan-Chan & Chao, Ming-Che, 2012. "The asymmetric income effect on household vehicle ownership in Taiwan: A threshold cointegration approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 696-706.
    6. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia & Handy, Susan, 2008. "Examining The Impacts of Residential Self-Selection on Travel Behavior: Methodologies and Empirical Findings," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt08x1k476, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    7. Zahabi, Seyed & Miranda-Moreno, Luis & Patterson, Zachary & Barla, Philippe, 2012. "Evaluating the effects of land use and strategies for parking and transit supply on mode choice of downtown commuters," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 5(2), pages 103-119.
    8. Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Cao, Xinyu, 2008. "Examining the impacts of residential self-selection on travel behavior: A focus on methodologies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8bz3z5qm, University of California Transportation Center.
    9. Bhat, Chandra R. & Sen, Sudeshna & Eluru, Naveen, 2009. "The impact of demographics, built environment attributes, vehicle characteristics, and gasoline prices on household vehicle holdings and use," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 1-18, January.
    10. Naveen Eluru & Chandra Bhat & Ram Pendyala & Karthik Konduri, 2010. "A joint flexible econometric model system of household residential location and vehicle fleet composition/usage choices," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 603-626, July.
    11. Pinjari, Abdul Rawoof & Bhat, Chandra R. & Hensher, David A., 2009. "Residential self-selection effects in an activity time-use behavior model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 729-748, August.
    12. Metin Senbil & Ryuichi Kitamura & Jamilah Mohamad, 2009. "Residential location, vehicle ownership and travel in Asia: a comparative analysis of Kei-Han-Shin and Kuala Lumpur metropolitan areas," Transportation, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 325-350, May.
    13. Sigal Kaplan & Shlomo Bekhor & Yoram Shiftan, 2011. "Development and estimation of a semi-compensatory residential choice model based on explicit choice protocols," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 51-80, August.
    14. Sehatzadeh, Bahareh & Noland, Robert B. & Weiner, Marc D., 2011. "Walking frequency, cars, dogs, and the built environment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(8), pages 741-754, October.
    15. Andrea CIRILLI & Paolo VENERI, 2010. "Spatial Structure and CO2 Emissions Due to Commuting: an Analysis on Italian Urban Areas," Working Papers 353, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    16. Brownstone, David & Golob, Thomas F., 2009. "The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and energy consumption," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 91-98, January.
    17. Spears, Steven & Houston, Douglas & Boarnet, Marlon G., 2013. "Illuminating the unseen in transit use: A framework for examining the effect of attitudes and perceptions on travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 40-53.
    18. Olaru, Doina & Smith, Brett & Taplin, John H.E., 2011. "Residential location and transit-oriented development in a new rail corridor," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 219-237, March.
    19. Bhat, Chandra R. & Eluru, Naveen, 2009. "A copula-based approach to accommodate residential self-selection effects in travel behavior modeling," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 749-765, August.
    20. Abdul Pinjari & Ram Pendyala & Chandra Bhat & Paul Waddell, 2007. "Modeling residential sorting effects to understand the impact of the built environment on commute mode choice," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(5), pages 557-573, September.
    21. Ferdous, Nazneen & Eluru, Naveen & Bhat, Chandra R. & Meloni, Italo, 2010. "A multivariate ordered-response model system for adults' weekday activity episode generation by activity purpose and social context," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(8-9), pages 922-943, September.

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