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Conceptualization and measurement of temporal focus: The subjective experience of the past, present, and future

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  • Shipp, Abbie J.
  • Edwards, Jeffrey R.
  • Lambert, Lisa Schurer
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    Abstract

    Temporal focus is the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future, and the concept is important because it affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. However, temporal focus has not been clearly defined nor situated in a nomological network of constructs. In addition, existing measures of temporal focus suffer from various shortcomings. In this paper, we advance the concept of temporal focus by critically examining its conceptualization, developing a new measure of temporal focus (Temporal Focus Scale; TFS), and evaluating the validity (i.e., construct, convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity) of the TFS across four studies. We conclude that understanding how individuals focus their attention toward the past, present, and future clarifies their responses to explicit and implicit temporal information, which suggests that a variety of research streams would benefit from incorporating the concept of temporal focus.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    Volume (Year): 110 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 1 (September)
    Pages: 1-22

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jobhdp:v:110:y:2009:i:1:p:1-22

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp

    Related research

    Keywords: Time Temporal focus Temporal orientation Time perspective Individual difference Construct validation Confirmatory factor analysis;

    References

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    1. Edwards, Jeffrey R. & Rothbard, Nancy P., 1999. "Work and Family Stress and Well-Being: An Examination of Person-Environment Fit in the Work and Family Domains," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 85-129, February.
    2. Jansen, Karen J. & Kristof-Brown, Amy L., 2005. "Marching to the beat of a different drummer: Examining the impact of pacing congruence," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 93-105, July.
    3. Lord, Robert G. & Brown, Douglas J. & Freiberg, Steven J., 1999. "Understanding the Dynamics of Leadership: The Role of Follower Self-Concepts in the Leader/Follower Relationship," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 167-203, June.
    4. Bluedorn, Allen C. & Martin, Gwen, 2008. "The time frames of entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-20, January.
    5. Holak, Susan L. & Havlena, William J., 1998. "Feelings, Fantasies, and Memories: An Examination of the Emotional Components of Nostalgia," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 217-226, July.
    6. Mannix, Elizabeth A. & Tinsley, Catherine H. & Bazerman, Max, 1995. "Negotiating over Time: Impediments to Integrative Solutions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 62(3), pages 241-251, June.
    7. Kozlowski, Steve W. J. & Gully, Stanley M. & Brown, Kenneth G. & Salas, Eduardo & Smith, Eleanor M. & Nason, Earl R., 2001. "Effects of Training Goals and Goal Orientation Traits on Multidimensional Training Outcomes and Performance Adaptability," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 1-31, May.
    8. George F. Loewenstein, 1988. "Frames of Mind in Intertemporal Choice," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(2), pages 200-214, February.
    9. Ledyard Tucker & Charles Lewis, 1973. "A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 1-10, March.
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    Cited by:
    1. Khachatryan, Hayk & Joireman, Jeff & Casavant, Ken, 2013. "The Effects of Intertemporal Considerations on Consumer Preferences for Biofuels," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150334, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Cardon, Melissa S. & Gregoire, Denis A. & Stevens, Christopher E. & Patel, Pankaj C., 2013. "Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 373-396.
    3. Cojuharenco, Irina & Patient, David & Bashshur, Michael R., 2011. "Seeing the "forest" or the "trees" of organizational justice: Effects of temporal perspective on employee concerns about unfair treatment at work," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 17-31, September.

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