Conceptualization and measurement of temporal focus: The subjective experience of the past, present, and future
AbstractTemporal focus is the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future, and the concept is important because it affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. However, temporal focus has not been clearly defined nor situated in a nomological network of constructs. In addition, existing measures of temporal focus suffer from various shortcomings. In this paper, we advance the concept of temporal focus by critically examining its conceptualization, developing a new measure of temporal focus (Temporal Focus Scale; TFS), and evaluating the validity (i.e., construct, convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity) of the TFS across four studies. We conclude that understanding how individuals focus their attention toward the past, present, and future clarifies their responses to explicit and implicit temporal information, which suggests that a variety of research streams would benefit from incorporating the concept of temporal focus.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
Volume (Year): 110 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp
Time Temporal focus Temporal orientation Time perspective Individual difference Construct validation Confirmatory factor analysis;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jansen, Karen J. & Kristof-Brown, Amy L., 2005. "Marching to the beat of a different drummer: Examining the impact of pacing congruence," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 93-105, July.
- Edwards, Jeffrey R. & Rothbard, Nancy P., 1999. "Work and Family Stress and Well-Being: An Examination of Person-Environment Fit in the Work and Family Domains," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 85-129, February.
- Bluedorn, Allen C. & Martin, Gwen, 2008. "The time frames of entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-20, January.
- Mannix, Elizabeth A. & Tinsley, Catherine H. & Bazerman, Max, 1995. "Negotiating over Time: Impediments to Integrative Solutions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 62(3), pages 241-251, June.
- Ledyard Tucker & Charles Lewis, 1973. "A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 1-10, March.
- Kozlowski, Steve W. J. & Gully, Stanley M. & Brown, Kenneth G. & Salas, Eduardo & Smith, Eleanor M. & Nason, Earl R., 2001. "Effects of Training Goals and Goal Orientation Traits on Multidimensional Training Outcomes and Performance Adaptability," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 1-31, May.
- George F. Loewenstein, 1988. "Frames of Mind in Intertemporal Choice," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(2), pages 200-214, February.
- Lord, Robert G. & Brown, Douglas J. & Freiberg, Steven J., 1999. "Understanding the Dynamics of Leadership: The Role of Follower Self-Concepts in the Leader/Follower Relationship," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 167-203, June.
- Holak, Susan L. & Havlena, William J., 1998. "Feelings, Fantasies, and Memories: An Examination of the Emotional Components of Nostalgia," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 217-226, July.
- Cojuharenco, Irina & Patient, David & Bashshur, Michael R., 2011. "Seeing the "forest" or the "trees" of organizational justice: Effects of temporal perspective on employee concerns about unfair treatment at work," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 17-31, September.
- Cardon, Melissa S. & Gregoire, Denis A. & Stevens, Christopher E. & Patel, Pankaj C., 2013. "Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 373-396.
- Khachatryan, Hayk & Joireman, Jeff & Casavant, Ken, 2013. "The Effects of Intertemporal Considerations on Consumer Preferences for Biofuels," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150334, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.