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Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

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  • Ren, Hongbo
  • Zhou, Weisheng
  • Gao, Weijun
  • Wu, Qiong
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    Abstract

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511007919
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 12 ()
    Pages: 8125-8136

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:12:p:8125-8136

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    Related research

    Keywords: ESCO and CDM; Profit allocation; Distributed energy resource;

    References

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    1. Zhao, Xingshu & Michaelowa, Axel, 2006. "CDM potential for rural transition in China case study: Options in Yinzhou district, Zhejiang province," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1867-1882, September.
    2. Ren, Hongbo & Zhou, Weisheng & Nakagami, Ken'ichi & Gao, Weijun, 2010. "Integrated design and evaluation of biomass energy system taking into consideration demand side characteristics," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 2210-2222.
    3. Wang, Qiang & Chen, Yong, 2010. "Barriers and opportunities of using the clean development mechanism to advance renewable energy development in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(7), pages 1989-1998, September.
    4. Ruan, Yingjun & Liu, Qingrong & Zhou, Weiguo & Firestone, Ryan & Gao, Weijun & Watanabe, Toshiyuki, 2009. "Optimal option of distributed generation technologies for various commercial buildings," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(9), pages 1641-1653, September.
    5. Reddy, B. Sudhakara & Balachandra, P., 2006. "Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector--implications for clean development mechanism," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(16), pages 2586-2599, November.
    6. Gilau, Asmerom M. & Van Buskirk, Robert & Small, Mitchell J., 2007. "Enabling optimal energy options under the Clean Development Mechanism," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5526-5534, November.
    7. Ren, Hongbo & Gao, Weijun, 2010. "A MILP model for integrated plan and evaluation of distributed energy systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 1001-1014, March.
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    Cited by:
    1. Akman, Ugur & Okay, Esin & Okay, Nesrin, 2013. "Current snapshot of the Turkish ESCO market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 106-115.

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