A reexamination of the role of income for the trade and environment debate
AbstractRecent work on the relationship between international trade and the environment has found small but negative effects of increased openness on measures of pollution for the average country. On a panel of 128 countries it is shown that, like previous studies, the trade intensity effect is negative and significant for the average country for emissions of four localized pollutants (SO2, NOX, CO, and VOCs). However, trade intensity effects are not uniform across countries of different income levels. In fact, a strong non-monotonicity exists in trade intensity elasticities. It is found that countries with relative world incomes less than 0.5 or greater than 2.5 tend to have positive trade intensity elasticities, while countries with relative world incomes between 0.5 and 2.5 tend to have negative trade intensity elasticities. The results imply that both factor abundance and pollution haven effects may be at work, but that the dominance of one effect over the other depends on a country's level of development.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.
Volume (Year): 68 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1-2 (December)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon
International trade Environment Pollution Globalization Developed nations Developing nations F18 Q53 Q56;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- Int - Health, Education, and Welfare - - - - -
- tra - - - - - -
- Env - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - - - -
- Pol - Economic Systems - - - - -
- Glo - Financial Economics - - - - -
- Dev - Microeconomics - - - - -
- nat - - - - - -
- Dev - Microeconomics - - - - -
- nat - - - - - -
- F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
- Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Grossman, Gene & Krueger, Alan B, 1992.
"Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," NBER Working Papers 3914, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chintrakarn, Pandej & Millimet, Daniel, 2005.
"The Environmental Consequences of Trade: Evidence from Subnational Trade Flows,"
Departmental Working Papers
0501, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
- Chintrakarn, Pandej & Millimet, Daniel L., 2006. "The environmental consequences of trade: Evidence from subnational trade flows," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 430-453, July.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2005.
"Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 85-91, February.
- Frankel, Jeffrey & Rose, Andrew K., 2003. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," Working Paper Series rwp03-038, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2002. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," NBER Working Papers 9201, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
- Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001.
"Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
- Maddison, David, 2006. "Environmental Kuznets curves: A spatial econometric approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 218-230, March.
- Judith M. Dean, 2002. "Does trade liberalization harm the environment? A new test," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 819-842, November.
- Cole, Matthew A., 2004. "Trade, the pollution haven hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve: examining the linkages," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 71-81, January.
- Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J. R., 2003. "Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 363-383, November.
- Gawande, Kishore & Berrens, Robert P. & Bohara, Alok K., 2001. "A consumption-based theory of the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 101-112, April.
- Hilton, F. G. Hank & Levinson, Arik, 1998. "Factoring the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Evidence from Automotive Lead Emissions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 126-141, March.
- Florenz Plassmann & Neha Khanna, 2006. "Preferences, Technology, and the Environment: Understanding the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(3), pages 632-643.
- Rothman, Dale S., 1998. "Environmental Kuznets curves--real progress or passing the buck?: A case for consumption-based approaches," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 177-194, May.
- Krishna Paudel & Hector Zapata & Dwi Susanto, 2005. "An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 31(3), pages 325-348, 07.
- Alassane Drabo, 2011.
"Agricultural primary commodity export and environmental degradation: what consequences for population's health?,"
- Alassane Drabo, 2011. "Agricultural primary commodity export and environmental degradation: what consequences for population’s health?," Working Papers 201110, CERDI.
- Halkos, George & Tzeremes, Nickolaos, 2011. "A conditional full frontier modelling for analyzing environmental efficiency and economic growth," MPRA Paper 32839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Louis Dupuy, 2012. "International Trade and Sustainability: A survey," Larefi Working Papers 1201, Larefi, Université Bordeaux 4.
- Naughton, Helen Tammela, 2010.
"Globalization and Emissions in Europe,"
27684, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Chang, Chun Ping & Berdiev, Aziz N., 2011. "The political economy of energy regulation in OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 816-825, September.
- Louis Dupuy, 2012. "International Trade and Sustainability : A survey," Working Papers hal-00701426, HAL.
- Frankel, Jeffrey, 2009.
"Environmental Effects of International Trade,"
Working Paper Series
rwp09-006, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- repec:laf:wpaper:201201 is not listed on IDEAS
- Kellenberg, Derek, 2012. "Trading wastes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 68-87.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.