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Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: Evidence for Spain

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  • Budría, Santiago
  • Moro-Egido, Ana I.

Abstract

In this paper, we explore the connection between education and wage inequality in Spain for the period 1994-2001. Drawing on quantile regression, we describe the conditional wage distribution of different populations groups. We find that higher education is associated with higher wage dispersion. A contribution of the paper is that we explicitly take into account the fact that workers who are and workers who are not in jobs commensurate with their qualifications have a different distribution of earnings. We differentiate between three different types of educational mismatch: 'over-qualification', 'incorrect qualification', and 'strong mismatch'. We find that while over-qualification and incorrect qualification are not associated with lower wages, strong mismatch carries a pay penalty that ranges from 13% to 27%. Thus, by driving a wedge between matched and mismatched workers, the incidence of strong mismatch contributes to enlarge wage differences within education groups. We find that over the recent years, the proportion of strongly mismatched workers rose markedly in Spain, contributing toward further within-groups dispersion.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Economics of Education Review.

Volume (Year): 27 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
Pages: 332-341

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Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:27:y:2008:i:3:p:332-341

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References

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  1. Budría, Santiago & Pereira, Pedro T., 2005. "Educational Qualifications and Wage Inequality: Evidence for Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 1763, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Gosling, Amanda & Machin, Stephen & Meghir, Costas, 2000. "The Changing Distribution of Male Wages in the U.K," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(4), pages 635-66, October.
  3. Javier Gardeazabal & Arantza Ugidos, . "Measuring the gender gap at different quantiles of the wage distribution," Studies on the Spanish Economy 108, FEDEA.
  4. Machin, Stephen, 1996. "Wage Inequality in the UK," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(1), pages 47-64, Spring.
  5. Franco Peracchi, 2002. "The European Community Household Panel: A review," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 63-90.
  6. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
  7. Fersterer, Josef & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1999. "Are Austrian Returns to Education Falling Over Time?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2313, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Llorens, Vanessa & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J., 2004. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  9. Pereira, Pedro Telhado & Martins, Pedro Silva, 2000. "Does Education Reduce Wage Inequality? Quantile Regressions Evidence from Fifteen European Countries," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp379, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  10. Joop Hartog & Pedro Pereira & Jose Vieira, 2001. "Changing returns to education in Portugal during the 1980s and early 1990s: OLS and quantile regression estimators," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(8), pages 1021-1037.
  11. F Green & Steven McIntosh & Anna Vignoles, 1999. "Overeducation and Skills - Clarifying the Concepts," CEP Discussion Papers dp0435, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  12. Sattinger, Michael, 1993. "Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 831-80, June.
  13. Richard R. Verdugo & Naomi Turner Verdugo, 1989. "The Impact of Surplus Schooling on Earnings: Some Additional Findings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(4), pages 629-643.
  14. Groot, Wim & Maassen van den Brink, Henriette, 2000. "Overeducation in the labor market: a meta-analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 149-158, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. José-Ignacio Antón & Rafael Mu�oz de Bustillo, 2009. "Immigration And Discrimination In A Former Emigrant Country: The Case Of Spain," Working Papers 2009.2, International Network for Economic Research - INFER.
  2. Elena B�rcena-Martín & Santiago Budría & Ana I. Moro-Egido, 2012. "Skill mismatches and wages among European university graduates," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(15), pages 1471-1475, October.
  3. Murillo, Inés P. & Rahona-López, Marta & Salinas-Jiménez, Maria del Mar, 2012. "Effects of educational mismatch on private returns to education: An analysis of the Spanish case (1995–2006)," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 646-659.
  4. Kalfa, Eleni & Piracha, Matloob, 2013. "Immigrants' Educational Mismatch and the Penalty of Over-Education," IZA Discussion Papers 7721, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. P. Charnoz & É. Coudin & M. Gaini, 2011. "Wage inequalities in France 1976-2004: a quantile regression analysis," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2011-06, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
  6. Marco Biagetti & Sergio Scicchitano, 2012. "Returns to Schooling in Europe: Evidence From Quantile Regression on EU-SILC Data," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ScientificPapers.org, vol. 2(5), pages 9, October.
  7. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2011. "Wage Inequality and Returns to Education in Turkey: A Quantile Regression Analysis," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1102, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  8. Galasi, Péter, 2009. "A túl- és az alulképzés bérhozama 25 európai országban
    [Returns for over-education and under-education for 25 European countries]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 197-215.
  9. Marta Rahona López & Inés P. Murillo Huertas & María del Mar Salinas Jiménez, 2010. "Incidencia del desajuste educativo en el rendimiento privado de la educación en España," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5, in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Greg (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 13, pages 267-284 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
  10. Ignacio Moral-Arce & Stefan Sperlich & Ana Fernández-Saínz & Maria Roca, 2012. "Trends in the Gender Pay Gap in Spain: A Semiparametric Analysis," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 173-195, June.
  11. Febrer, Antonia & Mora, Juan, 2009. "Flexible estimation of wage distributions in the presence of covariates," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 2189-2200, April.
  12. Budría, Santiago & Pereira, Pedro T., 2008. "The Contribution of Vocational Training to Employment, Job-Related Skills and Productivity: Evidence from Madeira Island," IZA Discussion Papers 3462, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Santiago Budría, 2011. "Are Educational Mismatches Responsible for the ‘Inequality Increasing Effect’ of Education?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 102(3), pages 409-437, July.
  14. Ramos, Raul & Sanromá, Esteban & Simón, Hipólito, 2014. "Public-Private Sector Wage Differentials by Type of Contract: Evidence from Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 8158, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. José-Ignacio Antón & Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo & Miguel Carrera, 2010. "From guests to hosts: immigrant-native wage differentials in Spain," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(6), pages 645-659, September.
  16. Jean-Marc Fournier & Isabell Koske, 2012. "Less Income Inequality and More Growth – Are they Compatible? Part 7. The Drivers of Labour Earnings Inequality – An Analysis Based on Conditional and Unconditional Quantile Regressions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 930, OECD Publishing.
  17. Rafal Kierzenkowski & Isabell Koske, 2012. "Less Income Inequality and More Growth – Are they Compatible? Part 8. The Drivers of Labour Income Inequality – A Literature Review," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 931, OECD Publishing.
  18. Ordine, Patrizia & Rose, Giuseppe, 2011. "Inefficient self-selection into education and wage inequality," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 582-597, August.

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