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Time Use of the Self-Employed

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  • Ari Hyytinen
  • Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen

Abstract

It is a well-documented empirical regularity that it is more satisfying to be self-employed than to work as an employee for an organization. A large part of this difference in job satisfaction is attributed in the literature to the strong perception of independence by the self-employed. In this paper we study people's time use as a source of entrepreneurial independence. By making use of disaggregated sequential microdata on people's time use, we are able to document that the self-employed work longer effective hours, as well as more in the evenings and weekends, than those employed by an organization. Even though being able to decide when to do one's work may be a sign of flexibility in time use, the self-employed have less pure leisure and are less frequently absent from work in general and when sick on weekdays in particular. Moreover, we document that the self-employed who have small children are more likely to work after 5 p.m., when the com-munal day-care centres close. Based on these findings it is not surprising that the self-employed perceive that they are more often under time pressure and in a hurry than those employed by an organization. Copyright 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Kyklos.

Volume (Year): 60 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Pages: 105-122

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Handle: RePEc:bla:kyklos:v:60:y:2007:i:1:p:105-122

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Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0023-5962

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Cited by:
  1. Ingrid Verheul & Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2009. "Allocation and productivity of time in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 273-291, October.
  2. Blanchflower, David G. & Shadforth, Chris, 2007. "Entrepreneurship in the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 2818, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Martin Binder & Alex Coad, 2010. "Life satisfaction and self-employment: A matching approach," SPRU Working Paper Series 194, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  4. Joachim Merz & Henning Stolze, 2010. "Kumulation von Querschnitten - Evaluierung alternativer Konzepte für die kumulierten laufenden Wirtschaftsrechnungen 1999 bis 2003 im Vergleich zur Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichprobe 2003," FFB-Discussionpaper 85, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  5. Dawson, C G, 2014. "Optimism, Job Satisfaction and Self-Employment," Department of Economics Working Papers 39313, University of Bath, Department of Economics.
  6. Ricardo Pagán-Rodríguez, 2013. "Being Under Time Pressure: The Case of Workers with Disabilities," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 831-840, December.
  7. Lonnie Golden, 2009. "A Brief History of Long Work Time and the Contemporary Sources of Overwork," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 84(2), pages 217-227, January.
  8. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2011. "Zeit- und Einkommensarmut von Freien Berufen und Unternehmern," FFB-Discussionpaper 89, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.

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