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Hedge Funds: Past, Present, and Future

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  • Ren� M. Stulz

Abstract

Assets managed by hedge funds have grown faster over the last ten years than assets managed by mutual funds. Hedge funds and mutual funds perform the same economic function, but hedge funds are largely unregulated while mutual funds are tightly regulated. This paper compares the organization, performance, and risks of hedge funds and mutual funds. It then examines whether one can expect increasing convergence between these two investment vehicles and concludes that the performance gap between hedge funds and mutual funds will narrow, that regulatory developments will limit the flexibility of hedge funds, and that hedge funds will become more institutionalized.

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File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.21.2.175
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal Journal of Economic Perspectives.

Volume (Year): 21 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 (Spring)
Pages: 175-194

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Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:21:y:2007:i:2:p:175-194

Note: DOI: 10.1257/jep.21.2.175
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References

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  1. Getmansky, Mila & Lo, Andrew W. & Makarov, Igor, 2004. "An econometric model of serial correlation and illiquidity in hedge fund returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 529-609, December.
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  6. Fung, William & Hsieh, David A & Naik, Narayan & Ramadorai, Tarun, 2006. "Hedge Funds: Performance, Risk and Capital Formation," CEPR Discussion Papers 5565, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Anne Jansen & Donald J. Mathieson & Barry J. Eichengreen & Laura E. Kodres & Bankim Chadha & Sunil Sharma, 1998. "Hedge Funds and Financial Market Dynamics," IMF Occasional Papers 166, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Nicholas Barberis & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Style Investing," NBER Working Papers 8039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Carl Ackermann & Richard McEnally & David Ravenscraft, 1999. "The Performance of Hedge Funds: Risk, Return, and Incentives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 833-874, 06.
  10. Edwin J. Elton & Martin J. Gruber & Christopher R. Blake, 2003. "Incentive Fees and Mutual Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 779-804, 04.
  11. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Stefan Nagel, 2004. "Hedge Funds and the Technology Bubble," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2013-2040, October.
  12. Jennifer Lynch Koski & Jeffrey Pontiff, 1999. "How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 791-816, 04.
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  14. Andrei Shleifer ad Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "The Limits of Arbitrage," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1725, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  15. Almazan, Andres & Brown, Keith C. & Carlson, Murray & Chapman, David A., 2004. "Why constrain your mutual fund manager?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 289-321, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Horst, Jenke ter & Salganik, Galla, 2014. "Style chasing by hedge fund investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 29-42.
  2. Yang CAO & Joseph P. OGDEN & Cristian I. TIU, 2011. "Who Benefits From Funds Of Hedge Funds? A Critique Of Alternative Organizational Structures In The Hedge Fund Industry (I)," Business Excellence and Management, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 1(1), pages 19-36, December.
  3. William N. Goetzmann & Sharon Oster, 2013. "Competition Among University Endowments," NBER Chapters, in: How the Financial Crisis and Great Recession Affected Higher Education National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Dichev, Ilia D. & Yu, Gwen, 2011. "Higher risk, lower returns: What hedge fund investors really earn," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 248-263, May.
  5. Patrick M McGuire & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2008. "Estimating hedge fund leverage," BIS Working Papers 260, Bank for International Settlements.
  6. Wegener, Christian & von Nitzsch, Rüdiger & Cengiz, Cetin, 2010. "An advanced perspective on the predictability in hedge fund returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2694-2708, November.
  7. Agarwal, Vikas & Fos, Vyacheslav & Jiang, Wei, 2012. "Inferring reporting biases in hedge fund databases from hedge fund equity holdings," CFR Working Papers 10-08 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
  8. Clauss, Pierre & Roncalli, Thierry & Weisang, Guillaume, 2009. "Risk Management Lessons from Madoff Fraud," MPRA Paper 36754, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Marko Pitesa & Stefan Thau, 2013. "Masters of the universe: How power and accountability influence self-serving decisions under moral hazard," Grenoble Ecole de Management (Post-Print) hal-00814565, HAL.
  10. Antonio Diez de los Rios & René Garcia, 2011. "The option CAPM and the performance of hedge funds," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 137-167, July.
  11. Marguerite Schneider & Lori Ryan, 2011. "A review of hedge funds and their investor activism: do they help or hurt other equity investors?," Journal of Management and Governance, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 349-374, August.
  12. Rui de Figueiredo & Evan Rawley & Orie Shelef, 2014. "Bad Bets: Excessive Risk Taking, Convex Incentives, and Performance," Discussion Papers 13-002, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.

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