Decomposing Inequality in CO2 Emissions: the Role of Primary Energy Carriers and Economic Sectors
Emission inequality across countries and the contribution of the energy mix and the sectoral composition of a country s energy use are of central importance to the climate debate. We analyze the evolution of inequality in global CO2 per capita emissions using both historical data on energy-related CO2 emissions and future emission scenarios generated with the integrated assessment model REMIND. Within our sample of 90 countries the results indicate that the Gini index declined from about 0.6 in 1971 to slightly above 0.4 in 2008. A decomposition of the Gini index of total emissions into primary energy carriers and into economic sectors provides additional insights. From the perspective of primary energy carriers, it is indicated that this reduction is mainly attributed to declining shares of emissions from coal/peat and oil in total emissions, and decreasing emission inequality within all fossil primary energy sources. From the perspective of economic sectors, the decline in overall inequality is almost entirely due to a pronounced decline of the contribution of emissions from manufacturing & construction. Our analysis also suggests that an equally spread emission reduction from any one source (i.e. primary energy carrier or economic sector) would not have a major impact on overall emission inequality. The analysis of future scenario data indicates that climate policy reduces absolute emissions inequality, while inducing drastic progressive emission reductions in all regions
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jakob, Michael & Haller, Markus & Marschinski, Robert, 2012. "Will history repeat itself? Economic convergence and convergence in energy use patterns," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 95-104.
- Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
- Cantore, Nicola & Padilla, Emilio, 2010.
"Equality and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling,"
Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 298-313.
- Nicola Cantore & Emilio Padilla, 2007. "Equity and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling," DEIAgra Working Papers 7001, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering, revised May 2007.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Teixidó-Figueras, Jordi, 2013. "Ecological footprint inequality across countries: The role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 34-41.
- Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality across countries: the role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects," Working Papers 2072/203169, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
- Juan Antonio Duro & Jordi Teixidó-Figueras, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality across countries: the role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects," Working Papers XREAP2012-17, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Oct 2012.
- Padilla, Emilio & Serrano, Alfredo, 2006. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: A distributive approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1762-1772, September.
- Emilio Padilla & Alfredo Serrano, 2005. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: a distributive approach," Working Papers wpdea0503, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Cantore, Nicola, 2011. "Distributional aspects of emissions in climate change integrated assessment models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2919-2924, May.
- Padilla, Emilio & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2013. "Explanatory factors of CO2 per capita emission inequality in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1320-1328.
- Emilio Padilla & Juan Antonio Duro, 2011. "Explanatory Factors Of Co2 Per Capita Emission Inequality In The European Union," Working Papers wpdea1107, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Duro, Juan Antonio, 2012. "On the automatic application of inequality indexes in the analysis of the international distribution of environmental indicators," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-7.
- Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2010. "On the automatic application of inequality indexes in the analysis of the international distribution of environmental indicators," Working Papers 2072/151617, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
- Yitzhaki, Shlomo & Lerman, Robert I, 1991. "Income Stratification and Income Inequality," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 37(3), pages 313-329, September.
- Sun, J.W & Ang, B.W, 2000. "Some properties of an exact energy decomposition model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 1177-1188.
- Marcotullio, Peter J. & Schulz, Niels B., 2007. "Comparison of Energy Transitions in the United States and Developing and Industrializing Economies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1650-1683, October.
- Schafer, Andreas, 2005. "Structural change in energy use," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 429-437, March.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
- Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
- Lerman, Robert I. & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1984. "A note on the calculation and interpretation of the Gini index," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 15(3-4), pages 363-368.
- Mark Heil & Quentin Wodon, 2000. "Future Inequality in CO2 Emissions and the Impact of Abatement Proposals," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(2), pages 163-181, October.
- Steckel, Jan Christoph & Jakob, Michael & Marschinski, Robert & Luderer, Gunnar, 2011. "From carbonization to decarbonization?--Past trends and future scenarios for China's CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3443-3455, June.
- Leibbrandt, Murray & Woolard, Christopher & Woolard, Ingrid, 2000. "The Contribution of Income Components to Income Inequality in the Rural Former Homelands of South Africa: A Decomposable Gini Analysis," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 9(1), pages 79-99, March.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79779. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.