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Avrupa Birliği Ortak Tarım Politikası ve Uluslararası Ticarete Etkileri

  • Emel Yurt

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Yildiz Technical University)

  • Senem Çakmak Þahin
  • Müge Akad

(Turkish) Gıda gereksiniminin dışarıya bağımlı olmadan giderilebilmesi ve uluslararası ticarette rekabet edebilir düzeye gelinebilmesi için tarım sektörü ve tarım politikaları, ülke ekonomilerinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu nedenle, AB’ye üye ülkeler, kendi tarım sektörlerini uluslararası piyasada rekabetçi konumda tutabilmek, İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın yarattığı kıtlık ve belirsizlik ortamında, nüfusun büyük bir bölümünü kapsayan tarım sektörü çalışanlarının gelir düzeylerini korumak gibi amaçlarla Ortak Tarım Politikası’nı (OTP) oluşturmuşlardır. OTP ile AB’ye üye ülkelerin tarım sektörlerini korumak üzere, tarım politikaları siyasi ve ekonomik anlamda bütünleşmiştir. Gelişmekte olan ülkelerin tarım sektörleri ve ticaretleri üzerinde güçlü etkilere sahip olan OTP, başta ABD olmak üzere pek çok gelişmiş ülke ile AB arasında bir güç savaşının yaşandığı bir alan olmuştur. Çalışmada, öncelikle OTP’nin ortaya çıkış nedenleri, amaçları, ilkeleri, finansmanı, ortak piyasa düzenlemeleri ve OTP reformları ele alınmıştır. Bu bağlamda, ürün bazında ve çeşitli ülke ve ülke gruplarına göre AB’nin tarımsal ürün ithalatı ve ihracatı üzerinden OTP’nin uluslararası ticarete etkileri incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. (English) In order for a country to satisfy its needs on food without being dependant on other countries and in order for it be competitive in trade, agriculture sector and agricultural policies should have high importance in its economics. Thus, EU member countries have established the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for keeping their agriculture sectors competitive in markets and maintaining the level of income of agriculture workers, who constitute a big part of the population in the shortage and uncertainty environment following the Second World War. Agricultural polices of the EU member countries have been politically and economically integrated for protecting the agriculture sectors of these countries. CAP has strong impacts on the agriculture sectors and trades of developing countries. Thus, CAP has been an area in which a power struggle between the EU and other powerful countries, USA being their foremost. In this study the reasons for the creation of CAP, its objectives, principles, financing, joint market organizations and reforms have been discussed. In this context, CAP’s impact on international trade have been examined through EU’s agricultural product export and import on a product basis and according to countries and country groups.

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Paper provided by Yildiz Technical University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 0006.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2009
Date of revision: Apr 2009
Handle: RePEc:yil:wpaper:0006
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