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A New Approach To Development- Integrative Improvement (Ii)™: Sustainable Development As If People And Their Physical, Social And Cultural Environments Mattered


  • Graham Douglas

    (Integrative Improvement Institute)


The purpose of this article is to outline the core principles of Integrative Improvement (II) in comparison with current development approaches, describe key features of II and briefly comment on II in relation to the Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) approach of the United Kingdom Department for International Development ( The current development approaches considered are those selected in 6.1 of the SL Guidance Sheets, namely:- “• Country-level Development Strategies, for example: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, Comprehensive Development Frameworks and National Strategies for Sustainable Development; • Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks; • Sector-Wide Approaches; • Governance and Rights-based Approaches.”

Suggested Citation

  • Graham Douglas, 2005. "A New Approach To Development- Integrative Improvement (Ii)™: Sustainable Development As If People And Their Physical, Social And Cultural Environments Mattered," General Economics and Teaching 0503006, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpgt:0503006
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 9. 9 pages that introduce a new bottom-up approach to economic development and governance that I call Integrative Improvement. Supporting discussion of related theories, bibliography, training modules and templates for implementation of the new approach are available at . Integrative Improvement is offered as a pathway to what I term Integrative Capitalism and Integrative Democracy.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-1137, December.
    2. Charles A. Holt & Roger Sherman, 1999. "Classroom Games: A Market for Lemons," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 205-214, Winter.
    3. Jorde, Thomas M & Teece, David J, 1990. "Innovation and Cooperation: Implications for Competition and Antitrust," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 75-96, Summer.
    4. Jeroen Hinloopen, 1997. "Subsidizing cooperative and noncooperative R&D in duopoly with spillovers," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 66(2), pages 151-175, June.
    5. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-1306, December.
    6. Spence, Michael, 1984. "Cost Reduction, Competition, and Industry Performance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 101-121, January.
    7. Capra, C. Monica & Goeree, Jacob K. & Gomez, Rosario & Holt, Charles A., 2000. "Predation, asymmetric information and strategic behavior in the classroom: an experimental approach to the teaching of industrial organization," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 205-225, January.
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    More about this item


    Economic development; Integrative Improvement; Integrative Thinking; Integrative Governance; Integrative Problem Solving; Integrative Capitalism; Integrative Democracy; Education-Teaching and learning; Training-Human Resources and management; Organisational development; Personal development; Applied Mind Science; Self-organising systems;

    JEL classification:

    • L - Industrial Organization
    • M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics
    • O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
    • P - Economic Systems

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