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Embedded Options in the Mortgage Contract

Author

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  • Brent W. Ambrose
  • Richard J. Buttimer Jr.

Abstract

This paper introduces a more detailed specification of the default process on single family residential mortgages: the borrower’s ability to reinstate the mortgage out of default prior to foreclosure. Inclusion of this detail allows for a more thorough analysis of lender loss mitigation programs. We find: Loan forebearance programs which provide borrowers additional time in default lead to higher delinquency rates; however, there is a corresponding increase in the odds of borrower reinstatement. In areas with stable house prices, optimal loss mitigation programs provide provide an economic incentive for the borrower to cure in conjunction with seeking deficiency judgments. Waiving default penalties is not effective in reducing default costs. Borrower assumptions concerning credit reputation significantly impact default and foreclosure. Lenders need to reinforce the impression that default will negatively impact future credit opportunities.

Suggested Citation

  • Brent W. Ambrose & Richard J. Buttimer Jr., 1998. "Embedded Options in the Mortgage Contract," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 305, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Handle: RePEc:wop:pennzl:305
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    Cited by:

    1. Youngha Cho & Soosung Hwang & Steve Satchell, 2012. "The Optimal Mortgage Loan Portfolio in UK Regional Residential Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 645-677, October.
    2. Brent Ambrose & Anthony Sanders, 2004. "Legal Restrictions in Personal Loan Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 133-151, November.
    3. Tsai, Ming-Shann & Liao, Szu-Lang & Chiang, Shu-Ling, 2009. "Analyzing yield, duration and convexity of mortgage loans under prepayment and default risks," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 92-103, June.
    4. Seow Ong & Tien Sing & Alan Teo, 2007. "Delinquency and Default in Arms: The Effects of Protected Equity and Loss Aversion," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 253-280, October.
    5. Katja Hanewald & Michael Sherris, 2011. "House Price Risk Models for Banking and Insurance Applications," Working Papers 201118, ARC Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research (CEPAR), Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales.
    6. David Feldman & Shulamith Gross, 2005. "Mortgage Default: Classification Trees Analysis," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 369-396, June.
    7. Szu-Lang Liao & Ming-Shann Tsai & Shu-Ling Chiang, 2008. "Closed-Form Mortgage Valuation Using Reduced-Form Model," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 36(2), pages 313-347, June.
    8. Che-Chun Lin & Ting-Heng Chu & Larry Prather, 2006. "Valuation of Mortgage Servicing Rights with Foreclosure Delay and Forbearance Allowed," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 41-54, February.
    9. O. Emre Ergungor, 2009. "Foreclosures in Ohio: does lender type matter?," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jan.
    10. Smith, Brent C, 2011. "Stability in consumer credit scores: Level and direction of FICO score drift as a precursor to mortgage default and prepayment," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 285-298.
    11. Lynn Fisher & Abdullah Yavas, 2007. "The Value of Equitable Redemption in Commercial Mortgage Contracting," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 411-425, November.
    12. Richard J. Buttimer, 2011. "The financial crisis: imperfect markets and imperfect regulation," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(1), pages 12-32, April.
    13. Brent W. Ambrose & Charles A. Capone, 1998. "Modeling the Conditional Probability of Foreclosure in the Context of Single-Family Mortgage Default Resolutions," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 391-429.
    14. Buttimer, Richard Jr. & Lin, Che-Chun, 2005. "Valuing US and Canadian mortgage servicing rights with default and prepayment," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 194-211, September.
    15. Goodman, Allen C. & Smith, Brent C., 2010. "Residential mortgage default: Theory works and so does policy," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 280-294, December.
    16. Katja Hanewald & Michael Sherris, 2013. "Postcode-Level House Price Models for Banking and Insurance Applications," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 89(286), pages 411-425, September.
    17. Lynn Fisher, 2006. "Renegotiation in the Common Law Mortgage and the Impact of Equitable Redemption," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 61-82, February.
    18. Wayne Archer & Brent Smith, 2013. "Residential Mortgage Default: The Roles of House Price Volatility, Euphoria and the Borrower’s Put Option," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 355-378, February.
    19. Ming Shann Tsai & Shu Ling Chiang, 2016. "The Valuation Model for a Risky Asset When Its Risky Factors Follow Gamma Distributions," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 421-444, September.
    20. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.

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