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Trade and Environment: Bargaining Outcomes from Linked Negotiations


  • Lisandro Abrego
  • Carlo Perroni
  • John Whalley
  • Randall M. Wigle


Recent literature has explored both physical and policy linkage between trade and environment. Here we explore linkage through leverage in bargaining, whereby developed countries can use trade policy threats to achieve improved developing country environmental management, while developing countries can use environmental concessions to achieve trade disciplines in developed countries. We use a global numerical simulation model to compute bargaining outcomes from linked trade and environment negotiations, comparing developed- developing country bargaining only on trade policy with joint bargaining on both trade and domestic environmental policies. Results indicate joint gains from expanding the trade bargaining set to include environment, opposite to the current developing country reluctance to negotiate in the World Trade Organization on this issue. However, compared to bargaining with cash side payments, linking trade and environment through negotiation on policy instruments provides significantly inferior developing country outcomes. Thus, a trade and environment policy linked negotiation may be better than a trade-only negotiation for developing countries, but compensation for environmental restraint would be even better for them. We provide sensitivity and further analysis of our results and indicate what other factors could qualify our main finding, including the erosion of the MFN principle involved with environmentally based trade actions.

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  • Lisandro Abrego & Carlo Perroni & John Whalley & Randall M. Wigle, 1999. "Trade and Environment: Bargaining Outcomes from Linked Negotiations," CSGR Working papers series 27/99, Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR), University of Warwick.
  • Handle: RePEc:wck:wckewp:27/99

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Limao, Nuno, 2005. "Trade policy, cross-border externalities and lobbies: do linked agreements enforce more cooperative outcomes?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 175-199, September.
    2. Markusen, James R., 2012. "Per-Capita Income as a Determinant of International Trade and Environmental Policies," Discussion Papers 2013-06, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    3. Henrik Horn & Petros C. Mavroidis, 2014. "Multilateral environmental agreements in the WTO: Silence speaks volumes," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 10(1), pages 147-166, March.
    4. Conconi, Paola & Perroni, Carlo, 2002. "Issue linkage and issue tie-in in multilateral negotiations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 423-447, August.
    5. John Whalley, 2011. "What Role for Trade in a Post‐2012 Global Climate Policy Regime," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(11), pages 1844-1862, November.
    6. Anriquez, Gustavo, 2002. "Trade And The Environment: An Economic Literature Survey," Working Papers 28598, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    7. Basu, Arnab K. & Chau, Nancy H., 2001. "Market Access Rivalry and Eco-labeling Standards: Are Eco-labels Non-tariff Barriers in Disguise?," Working Papers 127662, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    8. Lim“o, Nuno, 2002. "Are Preferential trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 129, Royal Economic Society.
    9. Tai-Liang Chen & Leonard Wang, 2010. "Trade liberalization and transboundary pollution in an international mixed duopoly," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 12(4), pages 187-200, December.
    10. Myriam Anna Scaringelli, 2011. "Commercio Internazionale E Ambiente: Un’Analisi A Livello Provinciale," Quaderni DSEMS 06-2011, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Matematiche e Statistiche, Universita' di Foggia.
    11. Freund, Caroline, 2003. "Reciprocity in free trade agreements," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3061, The World Bank.
    12. Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen & Jack Robles, 2001. "Multi-Issue Bargaining and Linked Agendas: Ricardo Revisited or No Pain No Gain," NBER Working Papers 8347, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Kamat, Manasvi & Kamat, Manoj, 2007. "Implications of the WTO on Indian Marine Industry, Issues and Policy Perspectives," MPRA Paper 6151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Lai, Yu-Bong & Hu, Chia-Hsien, 2008. "Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 209-228, May.
    15. Raghbendra Jha, 2004. "Alleviating Environmental Degradation in the Asia-Pacific Region: International cooperation and the role of issue-linkage," Departmental Working Papers 2005-01, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.

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