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Can enhancing the benefits of formalization induce informal firms to become formal ? experimental evidence from Benin

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  • Benhassine,Najy
  • Mckenzie,David J.
  • Pouliquen,Victor Maurice Joseph
  • Santini,Massimiliano
  • Benhassine,Najy
  • Mckenzie,David J.
  • Pouliquen,Victor Maurice Joseph
  • Santini,Massimiliano

Abstract

Governments around the world have introduced reforms to attempt to make it easier for informal firms to formalize. However, most informal firms have not gone on to become formal, especially when tax registration is involved. A randomized experiment based around the introduction of the entreprenant legal status in Benin is used to provide evidence from an African context on the willingness of informal firms to register after introducing a simple, free registration process, and to test the effectiveness of supplementary efforts to enhance the presumed benefits of formalization by facilitating its links to government training programs, support to open bank accounts, and tax mediation services. Few firms register when just given information about the new regime, but 9.6 percentage points more register when they were visited in person and the benefits were explained. The full package of supplementary efforts boosts the impact on the formalization rate to 16.3 percentage points, demonstrating that enhancing the benefits of formalization does induce more firms to formalize. Firms that are larger, and that look more like formal firms to begin with, are more likely to formalize, providing guidance for better targeting of such policies. However, formalization appears to offer limited benefits to the firms, and the costs of personalized assistance are high, suggesting that such enhanced formalization efforts are unlikely to pass cost-benefit tests.

Suggested Citation

  • Benhassine,Najy & Mckenzie,David J. & Pouliquen,Victor Maurice Joseph & Santini,Massimiliano & Benhassine,Najy & Mckenzie,David J. & Pouliquen,Victor Maurice Joseph & Santini,Massimiliano, 2016. "Can enhancing the benefits of formalization induce informal firms to become formal ? experimental evidence from Benin," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7900, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:7900
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. David McKenzie & Anna Luisa Paffhausen, 2019. "Small Firm Death in Developing Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 645-657, October.
    2. Caroline Krafft & Reham Rizk, 2018. "The Promise and Peril of Youth Entrepreneurship in MENA," Working Papers 1257, Economic Research Forum, revised 19 Nov 2018.
    3. Brian McCaig & Jordan Nanowski, 2019. "Business Formalisation in Vietnam," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(5), pages 805-821, May.
    4. Hanna Berkel, 2018. "The costs and benefits of formalization for firms: A mixed-methods study on Mozambique," WIDER Working Paper Series 159, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic Adjustment and Lending; Taxation&Subsidies; Macro-Fiscal Policy; Business in Development; International Trade and Trade Rules; Tax Administration; Public Sector Economics; Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction; Tax Law; Educational Sciences;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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