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The industrial pollution projection system


  • Hettige, Hemamala
  • Martin, Paul
  • Singh, Manjula
  • Wheeler,David R.


The World Bank's technical assistance work with new environmental protection institutions stresses cost-effective regulation, with market-based pollution control instruments implemented wherever feasible. But few environmental protection institutions can do the benefit-cost analysis needed because they lack data on industrial emissions and abatement costs. For the time being, they must use appropriate estimates. The industrial pollution projection system (IPPS) is being developed as a comprehensive response to this need for estimates. The estimation of IPPS parameters is providing a much clearer, more detailed view of the sources of industrial pollution. The IPPS has been developed to exploit the fact that industrial pollution is heavily affected by the scale of industrial activity, by its sectoral composition, and by the type of process technology used in production. Most developing countries have little or no data on industrial pollution, but many of them have relatively detailed industry-survey information on employment, value added, or output. The IPPS is designed to convert this information to a profile of associated pollutant output for countries, regions, urban areas, or proposed new projects. It operates through sectoral estimates of pollution intensity, or pollution per unit of activity. The IPPS is being developed in two phases. The first prototype has been estimated from a massive U.S. data base developed by the Bank's Policy Research Department, Environment, Infrastructure, and Agriculture Division, in collaboration with the Center for Economic Studies of the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This database was created by merging manufacturing census data with Environment Protection Agency data on air, water, and solid waste emissions. It draws on environmental, economic, and geographic information from about 200,000 U.S. factories. The IPPS covers about 1,500 product categories, all operating technologies, and hundreds of pollutants. It can project air, water, or solid waste emissions, and it incorporates a range of risk factors for human toxins and ecotoxic effects. The more ambitious second phase of IPPS development will take into account cross-country and cross-regional variations in relative prices, economic and sectoral policies, and strictness of regulation.

Suggested Citation

  • Hettige, Hemamala & Martin, Paul & Singh, Manjula & Wheeler,David R., 1995. "The industrial pollution projection system," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1431, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1431

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bird, Richard M., 1993. "Threading the Fiscal Labyrinth: Some Issues in Fiscal Decentralization," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 46(2), pages 207-27, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mahelet G. Fikru, 2013. "Environmental Policies, Mergers and Welfare," Economía Mexicana NUEVA ÉPOCA, , vol. 0(2), pages 449-461, July-Dece.
    2. Arik Levinson, 2009. "Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from US Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 2177-2192, December.
    3. Hamilton, Kirk & Dasgupta, Susmita & Pandey, Kiran & Wheeler,David R., 2004. "Air pollution during growth : accounting for governance and vulnerability," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3383, The World Bank.
    4. de Melo, Jaime & Grether, Jean-Marie & Mathys, Nicole Andréa, 2007. "Trade, Technique and Composition Effects: What is Behind the Fall in World-wide SO2 Emissions, 1990-2000?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6522, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. IAN COXHEAD & Sisira Jayasuriya, "undated". "Economic Growth, Development Policy and the Environment in the Philippines," Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Papers 430, Wisconsin-Madison Agricultural and Applied Economics Department.
    6. Jean-Marie Grether & Nicole Andréa Mathys & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Unravelling the Worldwide Pollution Haven Effect," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 23, pages 581-612 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 2003. "Moving to greener pastures? Multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-23, February.
    8. Dasgupta, Susmita & Hettige, Hemamala & Wheeler, David, 2000. "What Improves Environmental Compliance? Evidence from Mexican Industry," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 39-66, January.
    9. Fikru, Mahelet G. & Gautier, Luis, 2016. "Mergers in Cournot markets with environmental externality and product differentiation," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 65-79.
    10. Joseph S. Shapiro & Reed Walker, 2015. "Why is Pollution from U.S. Manufacturing Declining? The Roles of Trade, Regulation, Productivity, and Preferences," NBER Working Papers 20879, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813141094_0009 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Blackman, Allen & Harrington, Winston, 1998. "Using Alternative Regulatory Instruments to Control Fixed Point Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Lessons from International Experience," Discussion Papers dp-98-21, Resources For the Future.
    13. Grether, Jean-Marie & Mathys, Nicole A., 2013. "The pollution terms of trade and its five components," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 19-31.
    14. Judith M. Dean & Mary E. Lovely & Hua Wang, 2017. "Are foreign investors attracted to weak environmental regulations? Evaluating the evidence from China," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Economic Integration and Domestic Performance, chapter 9, pages 155-167 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    15. Arik Levinson, 2010. "Pollution and international trade in services," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 93-105, June.
    16. Dasgupta, Susmita & Hamilton, Kirk & Pandey, Kiran D. & Wheeler, David, 2006. "Environment During growth: Accounting for governance and vulnerability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1597-1611, September.
    17. Hettige, Hemamala & Mani, Muthukumara & Wheeler, David, 1998. "Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1876, The World Bank.
    18. Dasgupta, Susmita & Hettige, Hemamala & Wheeler, David, 1998. "What improves environmental performance? evidence from Mexican industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1877, The World Bank.
    19. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    20. Neequaye, Nii Amon & Oladi, Reza, 2015. "Environment, growth, and FDI revisited," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 47-56.
    21. Joseph S. Shapiro & Reed Walker, 2015. "Why is Pollution from U.S. Manufacturing Declining? The Roles of Environmental Regulation, Productivity, and Trade," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1982R2, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Aug 2017.
    22. Fikru, Mahelet G., 2016. "Modelling mergers among polluting firms when environmental policy is endogenous," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 1-6.


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