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Pourquoi une telle inefficacité dans la compétition internationale pour la définition des politiques agricoles ? A propos des incapacités discursives de la FAO

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  • Fouilleux, E.
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    Using an analytical grid mixing international relations and public policy analysis, we assume in this paper that international organisations compete actively at the international level for the formulation of public policies. We enlighten the difficulties experienced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) both to exist and to be considered as legitimate in international arenas and debates on agricultural policies. Our main hypothesis to explain such difficulties is that the FAO makes a poor use of its cognitive resources and that its discursive production is weak. This hinders the FAO from adding value to international debates and from appearing as a legitimate discussion partner. In this paper, we propose three categories of explanatory variables for such a cognitive and discursive malfunctioning: (i) acting as an international bureaucracy, the FAO presents some specific organisational weaknesses (policy work organisation and coordination, cultural tensions and paradigmatic oppositions between units and departments, leadership and management problems); (ii) the FAO is subject to the political control of developed countries that are able to leverage budgetary pressure; (iii) no efficient measures have ever been taken to really include the civil society and peasant organisations in the FAO's policy works and thoughts. ...French Abstract : Dans un cadre analytique mêlant approche cognitive des politiques publiques et sociologie des relations internationales, ce texte pose l'existence d'une concurrence internationale pour l'influence sur la fabrication des politiques publiques à laquelle prennent pleinement part les organisations internationales. Il fait ensuite le constat des difficultés de la FAO, Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, à faire entendre sa voix dans les débats mondiaux sur les politiques agricoles. L'hypothèse avancée pour expliquer ces difficultés renvoie à des défaillances dans l'emploi de ses ressources cognitives et dans la qualité de sa production discursive, qui empêchent la FAO d'apporter une valeur ajoutée au débat international et d'apparaître comme un interlocuteur légitime. Trois catégories de facteurs explicatifs de ces dysfonctionnements et défaillances discursives, a priori paradoxales compte tenu de la spécialisation de l'organisation, sont avancées : la première se réfère au fonctionnement de la FAO comme bureaucratie internationale (organisation et coordination du travail en matière de politique, sous-cultures professionnelles et tensions cognitives au sein de l'organisation, problèmes de leadership et de management), la deuxième explication réside dans le contrôle politique strict imposé à la FAO par les pays développés jouant, notamment, de leur pouvoir de pression budgétaire, et la troisième à l'absence de dispositions efficaces visant à associer les organisations paysannes et la société civile aux réflexions de l'organisation.

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    Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 200806.

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    Date of creation: 2008
    Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:200806
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