La dinámica reciente del bienestar de los niños en Uruguay. Un estudio en base a datos longitudinales
This paper analyzes the evolution of multidimensional poverty and inequality between 2004 and 2011 in Uruguay, based on data from Estudio Longitudinal del Bienestar en Uruguay (ELBU), which follows a cohort of Uruguayan children enrolled in primary school in primary schools In 2004. Children trajectories are assessed in four basic domains: access to resources (durable goods and income), nutrition, education and housing conditions. Considering the multidimensional poverty indexes developed by Alkire and Foster and inequality indexes (Bourguignon and Maatsumi), we observe how the different deprivations within households are combined, with improvements in both groups of indicators, although improvements are notoriously slower thin the multidimensional case in relation to income. Specifically, the increased access to resources coexisted with a reduction in school attendance for the group of children studied. Disagreggations by sex and ethnicity of the household head uncover strong disparities: Afro-descendant children exhibit levels of income and multidimensional poverty that duplicate the rest of households. The study also revealed that approximately 28% of children remained in multidimensional poverty in both periods (with k = 1), while 50% did so in terms of income. Those who were able to overcome the poverty condition (income or multidimensional) were households with heads of non-Afro-descent, higher educational levels and fewer members.
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