IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ucm/doctra/13-05.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Opportunistic earnings manipulation among bankrupt unlisted firms - How and when they do that -
[Manipulación de resultados oportunista entre empresas en concurso no cotizadas – cómo y cuando lo hacen -]

Author

Listed:

Abstract

Firms’ bankruptcy is a problem not only related to companies but also affects social welfare. Analysing a matched sample of bankrupt and healthy unlisted companies from a code law institutional setting (Spain), this paper has three main objectives: it aims to demonstrate that bankrupt firms are more keen to manage financial statements in comparison with their non-bankrupt pairs; it investigates when and what practices they use; finally, it provides empirical evidence across time and sectors. Using proxies of sale and production cost manipulation, the results highlight upwards earnings manipulation among Spanish bankrupt firms in comparison with healthy ones, starting at least four years before the beginning of the legal procedure, sale and cost manipulation, used differently in each sector and across the time period investigated.

Suggested Citation

  • Domenico Campa & María del Mar Camacho Miñano, 2013. "Opportunistic earnings manipulation among bankrupt unlisted firms - How and when they do that - [Manipulación de resultados oportunista entre empresas en concurso no cotizadas – cómo y cuando lo ha," Documentos de trabajo de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales 13-05, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucm:doctra:13-05
    Note: We acknowledge the support of Complutense University of Madrid and BSCH project No. 931559 of INIFCO research group. We also want thank Dr. Javier Martinez for his help in relation to the legal topics and the participants to the workshop held at the Complutense University of Madrid for their helpful insights.
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://eprints.ucm.es/id/eprint/17292/1/1305.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lee, Seung-Hyun & Yamakawa, Yasuhiro & Peng, Mike W. & Barney, Jay B., 2011. "How do bankruptcy laws affect entrepreneurship development around the world?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 505-520, September.
    2. Siew Hong Teoh & Ivo Welch & T.J. Wong, 1998. "Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1935-1974, December.
    3. S. Balcaen & H. Ooghe, 2004. "35 years of studies on business failure: an overview of the classical statistical methodologiesand their related problems," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/248, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    4. Schultz, Joseph Jr. & Lopez, Thomas J., 2001. "The impact of national influence on accounting estimates: Implications for international accounting standard-setters," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 271-290, September.
    5. Mary E. Barth & Wayne R. Landsman & Mark H. Lang, 2008. "International Accounting Standards and Accounting Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 467-498, June.
    6. Naomi Soderstrom & Kevin Jialin Sun, 2007. "IFRS Adoption and Accounting Quality: A Review," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 675-702.
    7. repec:hrv:faseco:30728041 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Chien-An Wang, 2012. "Determinants of the Choice of Formal Bankruptcy Procedure: An International Comparison of Reorganization and Liquidation," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(2), pages 4-28, March.
    9. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R. & Rajgopal, Shiva, 2005. "The economic implications of corporate financial reporting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-3), pages 3-73, December.
    10. Roychowdhury, Sugata, 2006. "Earnings management through real activities manipulation," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 335-370, December.
    11. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
    12. Karen Denning & Stephen Ferris & Robert Lawless, 2001. "Serial bankruptcy: plan infeasibility or just bad luck?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 105-109.
    13. Stijn Claessens & Leora F. Klapper, 2005. "Bankruptcy around the World: Explanations of Its Relative Use," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 253-283.
    14. DeFond, Mark L. & Jiambalvo, James, 1994. "Debt covenant violation and manipulation of accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 145-176, January.
    15. Cristina Gaio & Clara Raposo, 2011. "Earnings quality and firm valuation: international evidence," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 51(2), pages 467-499, June.
    16. Pindado, Julio & Rodrigues, Luis & de la Torre, Chabela, 2008. "How do insolvency codes affect a firm's investment?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 227-238, December.
    17. Ball, Ray & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2005. "Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 83-128, February.
    18. Key, Kimberly Galligan, 1997. "Political cost incentives for earnings management in the cable television industry," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 309-337, November.
    19. Levine, Ross, 1998. "The Legal Environment, Banks, and Long-Run Economic Growth," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(3), pages 596-613, August.
    20. Kallunki, J. -P. & Martikainen, T., 1999. "Financial failure and managers' accounting responses: Finnish evidence," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 15-26, January.
    21. Leuz, Christian & Nanda, Dhananjay & Wysocki, Peter D., 2003. "Earnings management and investor protection: an international comparison," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 505-527, September.
    22. Cristina Gaio, 2010. "The Relative Importance of Firm and Country Characteristics for Earnings Quality around the World," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 693-738.
    23. Archambault, Jeffrey J. & Archambault, Marie E., 2003. "A multinational test of determinants of corporate disclosure," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 173-194.
    24. DeFond, Mark L., 2010. "Earnings quality research: Advances, challenges and future research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 402-409, December.
    25. Marco Celentani & Miguel García-Posada & Fernando Gómez, 2010. "The Spanish Business Bankruptcy Puzzle and the Crisis," Working Papers 2010-11, FEDEA.
    26. Jones, Jj, 1991. "Earnings Management During Import Relief Investigations," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 193-228.
    27. Ohlson, Ja, 1980. "Financial Ratios And The Probabilistic Prediction Of Bankruptcy," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 109-131.
    28. Holger Spamann, 2010. "The "Antidirector Rights Index" Revisited," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(2), pages 467-486, February.
    29. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Skinner, Douglas J., 1994. "Accounting choice in troubled companies," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 113-143, January.
    30. Burgstahler, David & Dichev, Ilia, 1997. "Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 99-126, December.
    31. Andreas Charitou & Neophytos Lambertides & Lenos Trigeorgis, 2011. "Distress Risk, Growth and Earnings Quality," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 47(2), pages 158-181, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Dechow, Patricia & Ge, Weili & Schrand, Catherine, 2010. "Understanding earnings quality: A review of the proxies, their determinants and their consequences," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 344-401, December.
    2. Martin Walker, 2013. "How far can we trust earnings numbers? What research tells us about earnings management," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 445-481, August.
    3. Filip, Andrei & Raffournier, Bernard, 2014. "Financial Crisis And Earnings Management: The European Evidence," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 455-478.
    4. Campa, Domenico, 2019. "Earnings management strategies during financial difficulties: A comparison between listed and unlisted French companies," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 457-471.
    5. Juan García Lara & Beatriz Osma & Evi Neophytou, 2009. "Earnings quality in ex‐post failed firms," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 119-138.
    6. In Tae Hwang & Kang Sung Hur & Sun Min Kang, 2018. "Does the IFRS Effect Continue? An International Comparison," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(12), pages 1-20, December.
    7. Dung Viet Tran & M. Kabir Hassan & Reza Houston, 2020. "Discretionary loan loss provision behavior in the US banking industry," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 605-645, August.
    8. Sidney J. Gray & Tony Kang & Zhiwei Lin & Qingliang Tang, 2015. "Earnings Management in Europe Post IFRS: Do Cultural Influences Persist?," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 55(6), pages 827-856, December.
    9. Marra, Antonio & Mazzola, Pietro & Prencipe, Annalisa, 2011. "Board Monitoring and Earnings Management Pre- and Post-IFRS," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 205-230, June.
    10. Andreas Charitou & Irene Karamanou & Anastasia Kopita, 2018. "The determinants and valuation effects of classification choice on the statement of cash flows," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(6), pages 613-650, September.
    11. Masahiro Enomoto & Fumihiko Kimura & Tomoyasu Yamaguchi, 2013. "A Cross-Country Study on the Relationship between Financial Development and Earnings Management," Discussion Paper Series DP2013-34, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Oct 2017.
    12. Chang, Chu-Hsuan & Lin, Hsiou-Wei William, 2018. "Does there prevail momentum in earnings management for seasoned equity offering firms?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 111-129.
    13. Campa, Domenico & Camacho-Miñano, María-del-Mar, 2015. "The impact of SME’s pre-bankruptcy financial distress on earnings management tools," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 222-234.
    14. Camacho-Miñano, María-del-Mar & Campa, Domenico, 2014. "Integrity of financial information as a determinant of the outcome of a bankruptcy procedure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 76-85.
    15. Trimble, Madeline, 2018. "A reinvestigation into accounting quality following global IFRS adoption: Evidence via earnings distributions," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 18-39.
    16. Ferrer García, Cristina & Laínez Gadea, José Antonio, 2013. "Detectando diferencias en la medición de la calidad del resultado: evidencia empírica para empresas españolas || Detecting Differences on the Earnings Quality Measurement: Empirical Evidence on Spanis," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 16(1), pages 5-28, December.
    17. Isidro, Helena & Raonic, Ivana, 2012. "Firm incentives, institutional complexity and the quality of “harmonized” accounting numbers," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 407-436.
    18. Fung, Simon Y.K. & Goodwin, John, 2013. "Short-term debt maturity, monitoring and accruals-based earnings management," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 67-82.
    19. Fargher, Neil & Wee, Marvin, 2019. "The impact of Ball and Brown (1968) on generations of research," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 55-72.
    20. Oz, Ibrahim Onur & Yelkenci, Tezer, 2018. "Examination of real and accrual earnings management: A cross-country analysis of legal origin under IFRS," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 24-37.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Earnings management; Bankruptcy; Real manipulation activities; Code law setting; Unlisted companies.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G33 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
    • M41 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting - - - Accounting

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ucm:doctra:13-05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Águeda González Abad). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/feucmes.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.