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「公部門薪資是否過高」,一直是民眾關心的議題,尤其,前(2010)年當考試院院長關中先生的「公務人員跟一般人民不同,並且薪水低,需要保障」、「公務員錄取率只有3%,不是每個人都能當公務員」等言論一出,甚至引發不少民眾對此議題的爭論。為探討該議題,本研究計畫首先採用Oaxaca的工資差異拆解式,估計台灣公部門相對於私部門是否存在「不可解釋的工資溢價」的問題?其次,估計公、私部門「雇主與從業員工的市場訊息」。估計結果主要如下:(1) 即使公部門的從業員工與私部門的從業員工都具有相同的人力資本或生產力,公部門員工除了能賺取到一筆與私部門員工相同的「正常工資」之外,還能額外溢領到一筆「超額工資」或「經濟租」,因而,依據Olsen的「競租理論」,會進一步引發「競租」活動。(2) 公部門內無論雇主或受雇者對於市場工資率的「訊息欠缺」,都顯著低於私部門;而且,無論是公部門或私部門,雇主與受雇者的這種訊息欠缺問題,都會隨著雇用期間或工作年資的增長而獲得改善。 其次,本研究計畫根據公共經濟文獻上的論點,以及Roy (1951)和Willis and Rosen (1979)的「自我選擇」或「樣本選擇性誤差」,提出「公私部門薪資差異」形成的可能原因,主要有四:(1) 公部門使用的勞動不但須創造一般經濟學上所稱的「邊際產品收益」,且須創造公共經濟學所稱的「邊際產品選票」,其中後者是私部門勞工所不需要創造出來的產值。(2) 在「政府官員追求預算極大化」的前提下,政府官員在提供某一最低水準的勞務時,往往設法將該勞務水準送交到立法機構的預算案極大化。(3) 若公、私工作部門的工作能力呈正相關,但具有前者工作能力的離散度高於具有後者工作能力的離散度,則根據「相對利益」理論,或「超級明星效果」與「任何人都能做的效果」,我們所能觀察到的樣本將顯示,公部門的平均工資顯著高於私部門。(4) 假若公、私工作部門的工作能力呈負相關,且這兩種工作能力之群體的統計分配離散度相近,則根據「絕對利益」理論,我們所能觀察到的樣本將顯示,公部門的平均工資與私部門相近。

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Paper provided by Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan in its series IEAS Working Paper : academic research with number 12-A012.

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Length: 88 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Handle: RePEc:sin:wpaper:12-a012
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