The geographical processes behind innovation: a Europe-United States comparative analysis
The United States and European Union differ significantly in terms of their innovative capacity: the former have been able to gain and maintain world leadership in innovation and technology while the latter continues to lag. Notwithstanding the magnitude of this innovation gap and the political emphasis placed upon it on both sides of the Atlantic, very little systematic comparative analysis has been carried out on its causes. The empirical literature has emphasised the structural differences between the two continents in the quantity and quality of the major ‘inputs’ to innovation: R&D investments and human capital. The very different spatial organisation of innovative activities in the EU and the US – as suggested by a variety of contributions in the field of economic geography – could also influence innovative output. This paper analyses and compares a wide set of territorial processes that influence innovation in Europe and the United States. The higher mobility of capital, population, and knowledge in the US not only promotes the agglomeration of research activity in specific areas of the country but also enables a variety of territorial mechanisms to fully exploit local innovative activities and (informational) synergies. In the European Union, in contrast, imperfect market integration, and institutional and cultural barriers across the continent prevent innovative agents from maximising the benefits from external economies and localised interactions, but compensatory forms of geographical process may be emerging in concert with further European integration.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +39 06 57114612
Fax: +39 06 57114771
Web page: http://host.uniroma3.it/dipartimenti/economia/it/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Adam B. Jaffe, 1986.
"Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits and Market Value,"
NBER Working Papers
1815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
- Giovanni Peri, 2005.
"Skills and Talent of Immigrants:A Comparison between the European Union and the United States,"
524, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- Peri, Giovanni, 2005. "Skills and Talent of Immigrants: A Comparison between the European Union and the United States," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt78t8m1n7, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
- Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2003.
"Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
20008, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Vernon Henderson, 1999. "Marshall's Economies," NBER Working Papers 7358, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- François VANDAMME, 2000. "Labour mobility within the European Union: Findings, stakes and prospects," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 139(4), pages 437-455, December.
- Attila Varga, 1998. "Local academic knowledge spillovers and the concentration of economic activity," ERSA conference papers ersa98p493, European Regional Science Association.
- Josephine Anne Stein, 2004. "Is there a European knowledge system?," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(6), pages 435-447, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rtr:wpaper:0081. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Telephone for information)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.