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Defining and Measuring Metropolitan Regions


  • Freeman, Alan


This note assesses the range of options considered by GLA Economics for defining a geographic boundary for London that will permit robust comparisons with other cities for economic purposes. Based on the GEMACA method of defining a Functional Urban Area, it concludes that the best estimate of the population of London using mid-year and LFS-based estimates from 2005 and 2006 respectively, based on a core density of 1813 per square mile, using NUTS4 regions and a commute intensity of 10%, is 12,660,000 and of the workforce, 6,304,000, corresponding to a geographical extent of 4,104 square miles. The paper was originally published, and should be cited, as Freeman, A. 2007. Defining and Measuring Metropolitan Regions. GLA current issues note 17. London: GLA.

Suggested Citation

  • Freeman, Alan, 2007. "Defining and Measuring Metropolitan Regions," MPRA Paper 52716, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Jun 2007.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:52716

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Freeman, Alan, 2004. "Measuring and Comparing World Cities," MPRA Paper 18103, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Freeman, Alan & Cheshire, Paul, 2006. "Defining and Measuring Metropolitan Regions: a rationale," MPRA Paper 52714, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Nov 2006.
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    More about this item


    City; global city; Functional Urban Region; Larger Urban Zone; Territorial Indicators; Metropolitan Region; pluralism;

    JEL classification:

    • H70 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - General
    • R0 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General


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