IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Friedmann, Robertson-Walker (FRW) Models in Cosmology


  • Mohajan, Haradhan


Friedmann, Robertson-Walker (FRW) models are established on the basis of the assumption that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic in all epochs. Even though the universe is clearly inhomogeneous at the local scales of stars and cluster of stars, it is generally argued that an overall homogeneity will be achieved only at a large enough scale of about 14 billion light years. According to the FRW models, the universe has an encompassing space-time singularity at a finite time in the past. This curvature singularity is called the big bang. FRW singularity must be interpreted as the catastrophic event from which the entire universe emerged, where all the known laws of physics and mathematics breakdown in such a way that we cannot know what was happened during and before the big bang singularity. In these models the three-space is flat and are of positive and negative constant curvature; which incorporate the closed and open FRW models respectively. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe the FRW models with easier mathematical calculations, physical interpretations and diagrams where necessary.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohajan, Haradhan, 2013. "Friedmann, Robertson-Walker (FRW) Models in Cosmology," MPRA Paper 52402, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Dec 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:52402

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Mohajan, Haradhan, 2016. "Global Hyperbolicity in Space-Time Manifold," MPRA Paper 83036, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Mar 2016.
    2. Mohajan, Haradhan, 2014. "Gravitational Collapse of a Massive Star and Black Hole Formation," MPRA Paper 83188, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Aug 2014.
    3. Mohajan, Haradhan, 2016. "Singularities in Global Hyperbolic Space-time Manifold," MPRA Paper 82953, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Mar 2016.
    4. Mohajan, Haradhan, 2013. "Upper Limit of the Age of the Universe with Cosmological Constant," MPRA Paper 55597, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Oct 2013.

    More about this item


    Big bang; FRW models; homogeneous and isotropic universe; Hubble constant.;

    JEL classification:

    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:52402. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.