IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Antitrust and the competitive structure of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, 1950-1990


  • Toivanen, Hannes


National antitrust policies have potentially profound effects on global competitiveness of individual industries. Public policy interventions affecting organizational arrangements within industries, enforcement of commodity standardization, and price competition, as well as the regulation of intellectual property rights, are the major tools by which Government executes antitrust policies. This study documents the frequency, extent, and impact of U.S. antitrust policies toward the pulp and paper industry between 1950 and 1990. Passage of the Celler-Kefauver Antimerger Act in 1950 marked the beginning of a new antitrust experience across the whole U.S. economy. Yet, the application of the Act required government to forge industry specific standards of competitive structure. The antitrust experience of the pulp and paper industry, and its distinct segments, was particularly industry specific when it came to the enforcement of Celler-Kefauver Act and its consequences. Between 1950 and 1990, antitrust disadvantaged pulp and paper firms whose competitive strategy was based on regional or product specialization. As in other industries, antitrust appeared to encourage successful and growth-seeking paper firms to diversify into new areas of business. Unlike in other industries, successful pulp and paper firms relatively rarely undertook so-called conglomerate mergers, and preferred to diversify and expand into other segments of the forests products industry. In the context of pulp and paper industry, new incentive structures that emanated from antitrust facilitated the rise of large scale forests products giants that resembled each other in terms of strategy and structure. Antitrust between 1950 and 1990 shaped significantly the competitive structure of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, and probably transformed traditional arrangements for technological learning and the course of technological innovation. Industry’s recent performance and contemporary global competitiveness outlook cannot be understood without reference to its post-World War II antitrust experience.

Suggested Citation

  • Toivanen, Hannes, 2005. "Antitrust and the competitive structure of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, 1950-1990," MPRA Paper 17188, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:17188

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jellal, Mohamed & Zenou, Yves, 2000. "A dynamic efficiency wage model with learning by doing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 99-105, January.
    2. Faria, Joao Ricardo, 2000. "Supervision and effort in an intertemporal efficiency wage model: the role of the Solow condition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 93-98, April.
    3. Lin, Chung-cheng & Lai, Ching-chong, 1994. "The turnover costs and the Solow condition in an efficiency wage model with intertemporal optimization," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 501-505, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    pulp and paper industry; antitrust; regulation; political economy; innovation; United States; Competitive structure; industrial organization; celler-kefauer act;

    JEL classification:

    • K2 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law
    • L6 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
    • K21 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Antitrust Law
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:17188. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.