Crecimiento económico: enfoques y modelos. Capítulo 5 - Teoría del crecimiento endógeno
In order to explain growth in per capita output, an exogenous technical change is introduced into the neoclassical models. The new growth theory emerges as a critical to this explanation and considers that technical change is an endogenous result. Hence, the new theory abandons the neoclassical production function and the decreasing marginal returns to capital. The first section of this chapter explains in more detail the emergence of the endogenous growth theory. In the second and third sections, we present the theories of endogenous growth of first and second generation. In the fourth section, we analyze the main theoretic tools used by the endogenous growth models: constant or increasing returns to scale, the introduction of education, job training and human capital, the development of new technologies, innovation and institutions. Finally, the fifth section revises the economic policy implications.
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