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Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy: Lessons from the OECD Experience and their Relevance to Developing Economies

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  • Jean-Philippe Barde
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    In recent years, there has been a rapid spread of economic instruments (EIs) in environmental policies of OECD Member countries. The application of EIs has gained wider political acceptability and, in a growing number of cases, they have come to have incentive rather than merely revenue-raising effects. In Sweden, eco-taxes have been introduced as part of a broad fiscal reform, while in other countries the approach is more piecemeal. Virtually without exception, EIs are employed in combination with regulations and other policy instruments. Developing countries stand to learn from the OECD experience with EIs, but they often face unique challenges as well as opportunities in applying such instruments. Resource and other prices have historically been distorted in such economies, so correcting such distortions is a prerequisite to the effective use of EIs. Also, underdeveloped markets, public enterprises with soft budget constraints, and high rates of inflation can all undermine the ... Ces dernières années, on a pu constater une diffusion rapide des instruments économiques (IEs) dans les politiques environnementales des pays Membres de l'OCDE. L'application des IEs a été mieux acceptée politiquement et, très souvent, leurs effets se sont révélés plus incentifs que générateurs de revenus. En Suède, l'introduction des taxes écologiques a fait partie de la réforme fiscale générale alors que dans d'autres pays, l'approche s'effectue surtout au cas par cas. Les pays en développement peuvent tirer profit des expériences des pays Membres de l'OCDE avec les IEs, mais ils sont souvent confrontés à des défis ainsi qu'à des opportunités exceptionnels pour l'application de ces instruments. Historiquement, dans de telles économies, les prix des ressources naturelles et certains autres prix ont subi des distorsions et le rééquilibrage de ces distorsions est une des conditions préalables à l'utilisation efficace des IEs. Il faut également noter que les marchés sous-développés ...

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    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 92.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 1994
    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:92-en
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