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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Retirement Outcomes: Impacts of Outreach


  • Angelino Viceisza
  • Amaia Calhoun
  • Gabriella J.O. Lee


We review select literature on racial and ethnic disparities in retirement outcomes in the United States and the impact of outreach on such outcomes. First, there are significant disparities in retirement outcomes, reflecting a long history of racism and structural barriers. Second, there is comparatively little work on the differential impact of retirement outreach across race and ethnicity. Future work should consider designing interventions that cater to the needs of specific demographic groups, for example, by embracing the fact that Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites acquire retirement information from different sources. Future work should incorporate behavioral insights, particularly from prior interventions, and innovate on methodologies for data collection, linking, and analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Angelino Viceisza & Amaia Calhoun & Gabriella J.O. Lee, 2022. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Retirement Outcomes: Impacts of Outreach," NBER Working Papers 30456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30456
    Note: AG EH LS

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    JEL classification:

    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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