IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/29410.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

CLO Performance

Author

Listed:
  • Larry Cordell
  • Michael R. Roberts
  • Michael Schwert

Abstract

We study the performance of collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) to understand the market imperfections giving rise to these vehicles and their corresponding economic costs. CLO equity tranches earn positive abnormal returns from the risk-adjusted price differential between leveraged loans and CLO debt tranches. Debt tranches offer higher returns than similarly rated corporate bonds, making them attractive to banks and insurers that face risk-based capital requirements. Temporal variation in equity performance highlights the resilience of CLOs to market volatility due to their closed-end structure, long-term funding, and embedded options to reinvest principal proceeds.

Suggested Citation

  • Larry Cordell & Michael R. Roberts & Michael Schwert, 2021. "CLO Performance," NBER Working Papers 29410, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29410
    Note: AP CF
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w29410.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    • Larry Cordell & Michael R. Roberts & Michael Schwert, 2023. "CLO Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 78(3), pages 1235-1278, June.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mitchell, Mark & Pulvino, Todd, 2012. "Arbitrage crashes and the speed of capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 469-490.
    2. Peristiani, Stavros & Santos, João A.C., 2019. "CLO trading and collateral manager bank affiliation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 47-58.
    3. Bo Becker & Victoria Ivashina, 2015. "Reaching for Yield in the Bond Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1863-1902, October.
    4. Roberto Liebscher & Thomas Mählmann, 2017. "Are Professional Investment Managers Skilled? Evidence from Syndicated Loan Portfolios," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(6), pages 1892-1918, June.
    5. Steven N. Kaplan & Antoinette Schoar, 2005. "Private Equity Performance: Returns, Persistence, and Capital Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(4), pages 1791-1823, August.
    6. Yihui Wang & Han Xia, 2014. "Do Lenders Still Monitor When They Can Securitize Loans?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(8), pages 2354-2391.
    7. Anil Shivdasani & Yihui Wang, 2011. "Did Structured Credit Fuel the LBO Boom?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(4), pages 1291-1328, August.
    8. Irani, Rustom & Iyer, Rajkamal & Meisenzahl, Ralf & Peydró, José-Luis, 2021. "The rise of shadow banking: Evidence from capital regulation," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 34(5), pages 2181-2235.
    9. Glaeser, Edward L. & Kallal, Hedi D., 1997. "Thin Markets, Asymmetric Information, and Mortgage-Backed Securities," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 64-86, January.
    10. Pastor, Lubos & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2003. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 642-685, June.
    11. Longstaff, Francis A. & Myers, Brett W., 2014. "How Does the Market Value Toxic Assets?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 297-319, April.
    12. Peter M. DeMarzo, 2005. "The Pooling and Tranching of Securities: A Model of Informed Intermediation," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(1), pages 1-35.
    13. George M. Constantinides, 2005. "Capital Market Equilibrium with Transaction Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Sudipto Bhattacharya & George M Constantinides (ed.), Theory Of Valuation, chapter 7, pages 207-227, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    14. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    15. He, Zhiguo & Kelly, Bryan & Manela, Asaf, 2017. "Intermediary asset pricing: New evidence from many asset classes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 1-35.
    16. Vitaly M. Bord & João A.C. Santos, 2015. "Does Securitization of Corporate Loans Lead to Riskier Lending?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(2-3), pages 415-444, March.
    17. Benmelech, Efraim & Dlugosz, Jennifer & Ivashina, Victoria, 2012. "Securitization without adverse selection: The case of CLOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 91-113.
    18. Nadauld, Taylor D. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2012. "Did securitization affect the cost of corporate debt?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(2), pages 332-352.
    19. Michael Schwert, 2020. "Does Borrowing from Banks Cost More than Borrowing from the Market?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 75(2), pages 905-947, April.
    20. Robert S. Harris & Tim Jenkinson & Steven N. Kaplan, 2014. "Private Equity Performance: What Do We Know?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(5), pages 1851-1882, October.
    21. Isil Erel & Taylor Nadauld & René M. Stulz, 2014. "Why Did Holdings of Highly Rated Securitization Tranches Differ So Much across Banks?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(2), pages 404-453.
    22. Michael R. Roberts & Michael Schwert, 2020. "Interest Rates and the Design of Financial Contracts," NBER Working Papers 27195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Joshua D. Coval & Jakub W. Jurek & Erik Stafford, 2009. "Economic Catastrophe Bonds," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 628-666, June.
    24. Peter DeMarzo & Darrell Duffie, 1999. "A Liquidity-Based Model of Security Design," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(1), pages 65-100, January.
    25. Benmelech, Efraim & Dlugosz, Jennifer, 2009. "The alchemy of CDO credit ratings," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 617-634, July.
    26. Nickerson, Jordan & Griffin, John M., 2017. "Debt correlations in the wake of the financial crisis: What are appropriate default correlations for structured products?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(3), pages 454-474.
    27. An, Xudong & Deng, Yongheng & Gabriel, Stuart A., 2011. "Asymmetric information, adverse selection, and the pricing of CMBS," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 304-325, May.
    28. Sang Byung Seo & Jessica A. Wachter, 2018. "Do Rare Events Explain CDX Tranche Spreads?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 73(5), pages 2343-2383, October.
    29. Craig B. Merrill & Taylor D. Nadauld & Philip E. Strahan, 2019. "Final Demand for Structured Finance Securities," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(1), pages 390-412, January.
    30. Ivashina, Victoria & Sun, Zheng, 2011. "Institutional demand pressure and the cost of corporate loans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(3), pages 500-522, March.
    31. Sergey Chernenko, 2017. "The Front Men of Wall Street: The Role of CDO Collateral Managers in the CDO Boom and Bust," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 72(5), pages 1893-1936, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Marques, Manuel O. & Pinto, João M., 2020. "A comparative analysis of ex ante credit spreads: Structured finance versus straight debt finance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    2. Fabozzi, Frank J. & Klingler, Sven & Mølgaard, Pia & Nielsen, Mads Stenbo, 2021. "Active loan trading," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    3. John M Griffin & Jordan Nickerson, 2023. "Are CLO Collateral and Tranche Ratings Disconnected?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 36(6), pages 2319-2360.
    4. Alper Kara & David Marques-Ibanez & Steven Ongena, 2015. "Securitization and Credit Quality," Working Papers 15013, Bangor Business School, Prifysgol Bangor University (Cymru / Wales).
    5. Feixue Gong & Gregory Phelan, 2020. "Debt collateralization, capital structure, and maximal leverage," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 70(2), pages 579-605, September.
    6. Kara, Alper & Marques-Ibanez, David & Ongena, Steven, 2016. "Securitization and lending standards: Evidence from the European wholesale loan market," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 107-127.
    7. Dan Luo & Dragon Yongjun Tang & Sarah Qian Wang, 2018. "Model specification and collateralized debt obligation (mis)pricing," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(11), pages 1284-1312, November.
    8. Deku, Solomon Y. & Kara, Alper & Zhou, Yifan, 2019. "Securitization, bank behaviour and financial stability: A systematic review of the recent empirical literature," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 245-254.
    9. Fenner, Arved & Klein, Philipp & Mössinger, Carina, 2021. "Better be careful: The replenishment of ABS backed by SME loans," Discussion Papers 30/2021, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Alper Kara & David Marques‐Ibanez & Steven Ongena, 2019. "Securitization and credit quality in the European market," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 25(2), pages 407-434, March.
    11. Sharjil M. Haque & Simon Mayer & Teng Wang, 2024. "How Private Equity Fuels Non-Bank Lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2024-015, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Sascha Tobias Wengerek & Benjamin Hippert & André Uhde, 2019. "Risk allocation through securitization - Evidence from non-performing loans," Working Papers Dissertations 58, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
    13. Tobias Berg & Daniel Streitz & Michael Wedow, 2015. "Real Effects of Securitization," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1514, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    14. Irani, Rustom & Iyer, Rajkamal & Meisenzahl, Ralf & Peydró, José-Luis, 2021. "The rise of shadow banking: Evidence from capital regulation," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 34(5), pages 2181-2235.
    15. Solomon Y. Deku & Alper Kara & Nodirbek Karimov, 2021. "Do investors value frequent issuers in securitization?," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 57(4), pages 1247-1282, November.
    16. Angela Gallo & Min Park, 2023. "CLO (Collateralized Loan Obligation) Market and Corporate Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 55(5), pages 1077-1118, August.
    17. Elkamhi, Redouane & Nozawa, Yoshio, 2022. "Fire-sale risk in the leveraged loan market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(3), pages 1120-1147.
    18. Korgaonkar, Sanket, 2023. "The agency costs of tranching: Evidence from RMBS," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    19. Chen, Zhizhen & Liu, Frank Hong & Opong, Kwaku & Zhou, Mingming, 2017. "Short-term safety or long-term failure? Empirical evidence of the impact of securitization on bank risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 48-74.
    20. Gorton, Gary & Metrick, Andrew, 2013. "Securitization," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1-70, Elsevier.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29410. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.