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Aggregation in Large Dynamic Panels

  • Pesaran, M. Hashem

    ()

    (University of Cambridge)

  • Chudik, Alexander

    ()

    (University of Cambridge)

This paper considers the problem of aggregation in the case of large linear dynamic panels, where each micro unit is potentially related to all other micro units, and where micro innovations are allowed to be cross sectionally dependent. Following Pesaran (2003), an optimal aggregate function is derived, and the limiting behavior of the aggregation error is investigated as N (the number of cross section units) increases. Certain distributional features of micro parameters are also identified from the aggregate function. The paper then establishes Granger's (1980) conjecture regarding the long memory properties of aggregate variables from 'a very large scale dynamic, econometric model', and considers the time profiles of the effects of macro and micro shocks on the aggregate and disaggregate variables. Some of these findings are illustrated in Monte Carlo experiments, where we also study the estimation of the aggregate effects of micro and macro shocks. The paper concludes with an empirical application to consumer price inflation in Germany, France and Italy, and re-examines the extent to which ‘observed’ inflation persistence at the aggregate level is due to aggregation and/or common unobserved factors. Our findings suggest that dynamic heterogeneity as well as persistent common factors are needed for explaining the observed persistence of the aggregate inflation.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5478.

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Length: 56 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Econometrics, 2014, 178, Part 2, 273-285
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5478
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  1. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
  2. Jan Kmenta & James B. Ramsey, 1980. "Evaluation of Econometric Models," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number kmen80-1, 07.
  3. Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran & Elisa Tosetti, 2011. "Weak and strong cross‐section dependence and estimation of large panels," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 14(1), pages C45-C90, February.
  4. Clive Granger & Tae-Hwy Lee, 1999. "The effect of aggregation on nonlinearity," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 259-269.
  5. Hashem Pesaran, M., 2003. "Aggregation of linear dynamic models: an application to life-cycle consumption models under habit formation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 383-415, March.
  6. Koop, Gary & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Potter, Simon M., 1996. "Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 119-147, September.
  7. Rose, David E., 1977. "Forecasting aggregates of independent Arima processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 323-345, May.
  8. Granger, C. W. J., 1993. "Implications of seeing economic variables through an aggregation window," Ricerche Economiche, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 269-279, September.
  9. Jean Imbs & Haroon Mumtaz & Morton O. Ravn & Helene Rey, 2002. "PPP Strikes Back: Aggregation and the Real Exchange Rate," NBER Working Papers 9372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Chudik, Alexander, 2014. "Aggregation in large dynamic panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P2), pages 273-285.
  11. Stoker, Thomas M, 1984. "Completeness, Distribution Restrictions, and the Form of Aggregate Functions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 887-907, July.
  12. Chudik, Alexander & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2011. "Infinite-dimensional VARs and factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 4-22, July.
  13. M. Hashem Pesaran & Alexander Chudik, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of High Dimensional VARs Featuring a Dominant Unit," CESifo Working Paper Series 3055, CESifo Group Munich.
  14. Yan Shen & Cheng Hsiao & Hiroshi Fujiki, 2005. "Aggregate vs. disaggregate data analysis-a paradox in the estimation of a money demand function of Japan under the low interest rate policy," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 579-601.
  15. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 1997. "Aggregation and the Microfoundations of Dynamic Macroeconomics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288008, March.
  16. Granger, C. W. J., 1987. "Implications of Aggregation with Common Factors," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 208-222, April.
  17. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," CESifo Working Paper Series 1331, CESifo Group Munich.
  18. Lorenzo Trapani & Giovanni Urga, 2007. "Micro versus Macro Cointegration in Heterogeneous Panels," Working Papers 0711, Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo.
  19. Giacomini, Raffaella & Granger, Clive W.J., 2001. "Aggregationn of Space-Time Processes," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt77f76455, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  20. Harry H. Kelejian, 1980. "Aggregation and Disaggregation of Nonlinear Equations," NBER Chapters, in: Evaluation of Econometric Models, pages 135-152 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Granger, C. W. J. & Siklos, Pierre L., 1995. "Systematic sampling, temporal aggregation, seasonal adjustment, and cointegration theory and evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 357-369.
  22. M. H. Pesaran & R. G. Pierse & M. S. Kumar, 1988. "Econometric Analysis of Aggregation in the Context of Linear Prediction Models," UCLA Economics Working Papers 485, UCLA Department of Economics.
  23. Lewbel, Arthur, 1994. "Aggregation and Simple Dynamics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 905-18, September.
  24. Stoker, Thomas M, 1993. "Empirical Approaches to the Problem of Aggregation Over Individuals," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1827-74, December.
  25. Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2004. "Contemporaneous aggregation of linear dynamic models in large economies," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 75-102, May.
  26. Pesaran, M. & Pierse, R.G. & Lee, K.C., 1992. "Choice Between Disaggregate and Aggregate Specifications Estimated by Instrumental Variable Methods," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9219, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  27. Bailey, Natalia & Kapetanios, George & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2012. "Exponent of Cross-sectional Dependence: Estimation and Inference," IZA Discussion Papers 6318, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  28. Altissimo, Filippo & Mojon, Benoit & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2009. "Can aggregation explain the persistence of inflation?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 231-241, March.
  29. van Garderen, Kees Jan & Lee, Kevin & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2000. "Cross-sectional aggregation of non-linear models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 285-331, April.
  30. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Long memory relationships and the aggregation of dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 227-238, October.
  31. Geweke, John, 1985. "Macroeconometric Modeling and the Theory of the Representative Agent," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 206-10, May.
  32. Peter C.B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1222, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  33. Stoker, Thomas M, 1986. "Simple Tests of Distributional Effects on Macroeconomic Equations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 763-95, August.
  34. Lutkepohl, Helmut, 1984. "Linear transformations of vector ARMA processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 283-293, December.
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