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Immigrant Circulation and Citizenship: Hotel Canada?


  • DeVoretz, Don J.

    () (Simon Fraser University)


Canada has experienced a unique problem as a subset of its immigrants, approximately 10%, leave after ascension to citizenship. In this paper I argue that both the degree of immigrant naturalization and subsequent emigration from Canada is conditioned by economic opportunities and Canadian citizenship policies. A triangular model of movement comprising the concept of an entrepôt destination serves as a basis to argue that immigrants to entrepôt countries are faced with the decision to stay or leave after citizenship ascension. Limited evidence is presented to support the conclusion that recently naturalized Canadian immigrants who leave for a third country (USA) or return home (Hong Kong) experience positive selection and overachieve.

Suggested Citation

  • DeVoretz, Don J., 2009. "Immigrant Circulation and Citizenship: Hotel Canada?," IZA Discussion Papers 4312, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4312

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter Gottschalk & Enrico Spolaore, 2002. "On the Evaluation of Economic Mobility," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 191-208.
    2. Fields, Gary S. & Leary, Jesse B. & Ok, Efe A., 2002. "Stochastic dominance in mobility analysis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 333-339, May.
    3. Fields, Gary S. & Ok, Efe A., 1996. "The Measurement of Income Mobility: An Introduction to the Literature," Working Papers 96-05, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    4. Dickens, Richard, 2000. "Caught in a Trap? Wage Mobility in Great Britain: 1975-1994," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 67(268), pages 477-497, November.
    5. Aaberge, Rolf, et al, 2002. "Income Inequality and Income Mobility in the Scandinavian Countries Compared to the United States," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(4), pages 443-469, December.
    6. Creedy, John & Wilhelm, Mark, 2002. "Income Mobility, Inequality and Social Welfare," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 140-150, June.
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    More about this item


    emigration; return migration; citizenship;

    JEL classification:

    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion

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