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Seguro Agrícola no Brasil e o Desenvolvimento do Programa de Subvenção ao Prêmio

  • Gesmar Rosa dos Santos
  • Alexandre Gervásio de Sousa
  • Gustavo Alvarenga

Em função do seu papel amenizador de prejuízos dos agricultores, o seguro agrícola é de grande importância para a agricultura de um país. Por outro lado, o fato deste seguro representar apenas 0,4% do montante do mercado de seguros no Brasil indica um grande espaço para crescer. Tais mercados, inclusive no plano internacional, guardam profunda relação de dependência do fomento público. Neste sentido, o Programa de Subvenção ao Prêmio do Seguro Rural (PSR), gerido pelo governo federal, tem sido o maior incentivo para a adesão de seguradoras e agricultores. Assim, este trabalho analisa o PSR com base em dados oficiais do período 2006-2011, a partir dos aspectos descritivos e de tabulações que permitem uma análise pautada nos objetivos do programa. Observou-se que este mercado se restringia a 294 municípios e a sete estados, no ano 2011, destacando-se que o mercado tem médio padrão de incentivos e reflete a estrutura de combinação de mecanismos de governo com as estratégias das seguradoras para a venda de seguros. Conclui-se, por um lado, que o PSR é uma ação essencial para o desenvolvimento do seguro agrícola no Brasil, mas, por outro lado, observou-se que o mercado conta com a possibilidade de avanços com suas próprias forças, havendo margem operacional para isto. Quando os dados são analisados por região ou estado produtor e por tipo de cultivo, evidencia-se baixa concorrência na oferta de seguros e uma grande concentração das operações em poucas seguradoras. A descontinuidade do incremento na subvenção, após ter sido reduzida em 23,4% de 2009 para 2010, deixou sequelas tanto nos operadores quanto nos produtores, por ter contrariado o aprendizado coletivo, trazendo insegurança em relação a montantes e prazos de liberação da ajuda ao prêmio. Entre as sugestões apontadas pelo estudo, esta descontinuidade é questão central a ser enfrentada pelos gestores, aliada a medidas de crescimento do mercado, qualificação da demanda e maior concorrência. Agricultural insurance is of great importance to agriculture of a country in terms of its role for farmers rent. Moreover, the fact that the crop insurance represent only 0.4% of the amount of the insurance market in Brazil indicates a large space to grow. Such markets, including internationally, keep deep relationship of dependence on public support. In this sense, the insurance premium subvention program (PSR), a federal government initiative, has been a major incentive for insurers and farmers adhesion. This study describes the trajectory of the PSR from the point of view of the government action, focused on descriptive aspects that allow the analysis of the goals of the program. We analyze the PSR based on official data from the period 2006-2011. It was observed that this market is limited to 294 municipalities and seven states in the year 2011. Another point worth noting is that the data reflect a market size with standard incentives, but also reflects the combination of mechanisms and strategies of insurers to enhance their sales. One issue to be resolved by the government relates to uncertainty about the amounts and timing of release of insurance premium subvention. The discontinuity of the increase in subsidy, having been reduced by 23.4%, from 2009 to 2010, left consequences in both the producers and insurers. We conclude that the PSR is an essential action for the development of agricultural insurance in Brazil. Moreover, it was observed that the market has the ability to progress with its own forces, because it has a reasonable operational margin. When the data is analyzed regionally and by type of crop they highlight the low competition in the insurance offer and a large concentration of operations in a few insurers.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1910.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1910
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